Phần 28

Why do we cry when we eat spicy food? Today we examine the science behind hot chilli peppers.
तिखट पदार्थ खाताना डोळ्यातून पाणी का येतं? यामागचं शास्त्र आज जाणून घेऊ.

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Why do some chillies make us cry?

Why do we cry when we eat spicy food? Today we listen to a cooking programme, where the presenters explain the science behind hot chillies.
तिखट पदार्थ खाताना डोळ्यातून पाणी का येतं? यामागचं शास्त्र आज जाणून घेऊ.

Before you listen

Consider the following questions:

- How can we measure the strength of chillies?
- What are the physical effects of eating chilli on the body?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

Hiển thị văn bản ghi âm (hay video) Giấu văn bản ghi âm (hay video)

Tejali
Hello! ऐकलंत का? Listen Here! मध्ये तुमचं स्वागत. मी तेजाली आणि माझ्यासोबत आहे टॉम.

Tom
Hi! I'm Tom. Sorry!

Tejali
Tom! What are you eating? It smells really spicy! It hurts my nose!

Tom
It's my new chilli sauce, which is really high on the Scoville Scale. Almost two million units!

Tejali
What?! 'A scale' म्हणजे फुटपट्टी, मोजमाप किंवा प्रमाण. What's the Scoville Scale?

Tom
Well, the Scoville Scale is the name of the scale used to measure the strength of hot chillies. It's named after its inventor, a Mr Richard Scoville.

Tejali
BBCच्या Kitchen Cabinet मधली क्लिप ऐकू या आज. त्यात या  Scoville Scale बद्दल माहिती दिलीये. 

Scoville Scale – it has alarming units of numbers – you talk about half a million units on the Scoville scale or two million or three million, so, they start in the thousands. If you're there around 200 thousand, that's not anything we should worry about. That's OK for cooking.

Tom
So, he said the scale has 'alarming units of numbers'.

Tejali

 'Unit' म्हणजे एकक, 'alarming' म्हणजे भयावह. So, units of numbers are groups of numbers?  So, units of numbers are groups of numbers?

Tom
That's right, and the numbers we use for measuring the strength of chillies are huge, which is why they are alarming. He said they 'start in the thousands'.

Tejali
'The thousands' म्हणजे हजारो.

Tom
That's correct. We can also have the tens of thousands, the hundreds of thousands, the millions and so on. These all describe groups of numbers of a similar size and they all begin with 'the'.

Tejali
I could say 'the number of people in my city is in the millions'?

Tom
Exactly! This sauce is in the millions on the Scoville Scale. But why do you think it hurts your nose?

Tejali
चला शोधू. आपल्या मेंदूमध्ये या मिरचीमुळे काय प्रक्रिया होतात हे कसं सांगितलंय? ऐका

This is something that stimulates the cranial nerve that serves the eyes, the nose and the mouth and it rings bells when you have too much mustard and you feel it here, at the bridge of your nose. And of course, your eyes start to water because they think they're being attacked because you're getting those nerve endings tingling away.

Tom

OK. That was difficult. He mentioned a cranial nerve.

Tejali

'A cranial nerve' ही कपाळातील एक शीर असते. 'nerve' म्हणजे शीर किंवा मज्जातंतू.  'Cranium' म्हणजे डोक्याच्या कवटीचा कपाळाचा भाग. त्यापासून 'Cranial' हे विशेषण तयार झालं. या मज्जातंतूंचं काम काय असतं? ते कशाचं नियंत्रण करतात?

This is something that stimulates the cranial nerve that serves the eyes, the nose and the mouth and it rings bells when you have too much mustard.

Tom
So, he said the nerve serves the eyes, the nose and the mouth. He also said it 'rings bells' when it detects mustard or chilli.

Tejali
'Bells' म्हणजे घंटा. 'Rings bells' म्हणजे घंटा वाजवणे. म्हणजे इथे धोक्याची घंटा किंवा सूचना देणे असा अर्थ आहे.

Tom
Right. We say something 'rings bells', as bells are commonly associated with alarms.

Tejali
मिरचीचा तिखट वास आल्यावर काय घडतं? ऐका.

And of course, your eyes start to water because they think they're being attacked because you're getting those nerve endings tingling away.

Tom
He says 'your eyes start to water' because they think that they're being attacked!

Tejali
'water' म्हणजे पाणी. पण जेव्हा डोळ्यातून पाणी वाहायला लागत ते त्याचा वापर क्रियापद म्हणूनही करतात, जेव्हा मेंदूकडे मिरचीची संवेदना जाते, तेव्हा त्या उग्र वासामुळे मेंदूला वाटतं की आपल्यावर हल्ला झालाय. Is that why the nose waters, too?

Tom
Well, actually, we say that the eyes and the mouth 'water', but when the nose expels water, we use the verb 'run'. And yes, the higher the units on the Scoville Scale, the more the eyes water and the more the nose runs.

Tejali
 आता हे शेवटच ऐकू. मज्जातंतूंवर होणाऱ्या परिणामांबद्दल काय सांगितलंय?
And of course, your eyes start to water because they think they're being attacked because you're getting those nerve endings tingling away.

Tom
He says 'tingling away'.

Tejali
'To tingle' म्हणजे मुंग्या येणे किंवा हलकेच उत्तेजित होणे. इथे वापरलंय 'tingling'. जेव्हा 'tingling' सोबत 'away' येत तेव्हा त्यातून चालू क्रिया सूचित केली जाते.

Tom
Correct! So, while you were talking away, I noticed that we've run out of time!  How alarming!

Tejali
अरे बापरे, संपलीच वेळ, चला आजचे शब्द घेऊ जाणून जाता जाता आज शिकलो 'scale', 'alarming', 'units', 'the thousands', 'cranial nerve' and 'rings bells'. Remember – your eyes and mouth water, but your nose runs. समजलं ? पुन्हा भेटू Listen hereच्या पुढच्या भागात.

Language features

Listen to today's clip in full here

Source: The Kitchen Cabinet

 

scale (noun)
We use scale to refer to a system of measurement. In today's episode we look at the Scoville scale. This is a way of stating how hot a particular chilli is.

  • We found that the chillies measured highly on the Scoville Scale.

We can use scales (always plural) to refer to an instrument for measuring weight.

  • Use the scales to weigh out 100g of sugar.

the thousands

The thousands is a collective noun we use to generically describe numbers between 1 and 9999. We often use this expression to speak generally or in a non-specific way. We use the preposition 'in' to show membership of this group.

  • The audience tonight was huge! It must have been in the thousands.

We can also use this expression with other categories of number. We could say the tens of thousands, the hundreds of thousands, the millions etc.

  • Fifty years ago this was a small town. Now it's a city and the population must be in the millions! 

water (verb)
In the episode, the presenters discuss use the verb to water to describe the supply of water to the eyes and the mouth.

  • Those chillies are so hot! My eyes are watering.

We often use this expression in relation to the mouth when discussing food in a positive way.

  • My mouth began to water as soon as I read the menu. It all looked delicious!

Note that we don't use to water when discussing the nose. Instead we say that the nose 'runs'.

  • My nose starts to run every time I eat spicy food!

Why do some chillies make us cry?

3 Questions

Fill the gaps
रिकाम्या जागा भरा.

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Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयांवर बोलणार आहोत.

Session Vocabulary

  • scale
    फुटपट्टी

    alarming
    भयावह

    units
    एकक

    cranial nerve
    कपाल शीर,

    rings bells.
    घंटा वाजणे (धोक्याची)

    tingle
    मुंग्या येणे