คำศัพท์จากบทเรียน

6 Minute Vocabulary

Prefixes de-, dis-, dys

Dis- usually gives the opposite meaning. So, to disagree is the opposite of agree. Disappear is the opposite of appear. And if you know what comfort means, then you can guess what discomfort means!

Words beginning with dys- are usually medical. They're quite technical, but if your doctor says you have dyskinesia (difficulty moving normally), dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) or dyssomnia (difficulty sleeping), then you know you're not completely healthy.

De- often has the idea of moving 'away' from something. Or, like dis-, it can also give an opposite meaning. To decentralise is to move things away from the centre (the opposite of centralise). If you deforest land, you take the trees away. And to detox is to remove toxins (harmful substances).

Session 2

methane
clear gas with no smell, used as fuel

bacteria
very small living things, some kinds cause disease

organisms
living things

ancient
very old

Session 3

The world's oldest stone tools

species
a group of animals or plants that are similar to each other

spotted
saw after looking hard

dating
finding out the age of

volcanic ash
the powder left after rock and gasses are forced out of a mountain

estimated
guessed; calculated

monumental
(here) very large amount of time

fossils
bones preserved in rock for a long time

smart
(here) intelligent

game-changing
having a big effect

Session 4

crumbs
very small pieces of food from bread or biscuits 

insulting
rude

suspicious
makes you think something bad or wrong is happening

delicious
very tasty

When we make two words into one, we call them contractions:

could have - could've

Sometimes we make three words into one. We call these double contractions:

could not have - couldn't've

We use apostophes to show where the missing letters were in the new contracted word:

Single contractionMight not - mightn't

Double contractionMight nohave - mightn't've

Here are some common double contractions:

Could not have - Couldn't've

Might not have - Mightn't've

Must not have - Mustn't've

Cannot have - Can't've

I would have - I'd've

You would have - You'd've

He would have - He'd've

She would have - She'd've

We would have - We'd've

They would have - They'd've

Session 5 - Drama

confession
admitting you have done something wrong

lure
to tempt someone to go to a place they may not wish to go

wreck
a ship that is destroyed at sea

tobacco
substance smoked in cigarettes or pipes

guineas
money used in Britain in the past. A guinea was a pound and five pence

soaked
very wet

foolish
not sensible

carriage
a vehicle used to carry people in the past with four wheels and pulled by horses

wrecker
person who makes a ship crash onto rocks in order to steal the goods it's carrying

cargo
goods

inform
to give information about a person who has done something wrong