Sesión 2

Today we examine one scientist’s analysis of teenagers, homework and the brain. Can she explain why teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?

오늘은 한 과학자가 분석한 십대와 과제, 뇌에 대한 내용을살펴보겠습니다. 십대들이 과제물을 마감시간 전까지 미루는 이유가 설명될 수 있을까요?

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Why do teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?

Today we examine one scientist’s analysis of teenagers, homework and the brain.
오늘은 한 과학자가 분석한 십대와 과제, 뇌에 대한 내용을 살펴보겠습니다.

Before you listen!

1) How many reasons can you think of that explain why many teenagers leave their homework until the last minute?

2) Check the Session Vocabulary. Make sure you understand what these pieces of vocabulary mean.

- Pre-frontal cortex
- Neuroscientist

3) Based on the vocabulary in Question 2, what kinds of reasons do you think we will learn about today?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

Mostrar la transcripción Ocultar la transcripción

Bolam
안녕하세요! Listen Here에 오신 것을 환영합니다. 이 코너에선 여러분이 뉴스를 이해하는데 도움이 되는 영어 표현을. 알려드릴 거에요. 저는 손보람입니다.

Tom
And I'm Tom. Hi everyone! Today we're talking about teenagers, homework and the brain.

Bolam
Did you do your homework when you were a teenager?

Tom
Yeah I did, but, often at the last minute, which means as late as possible!

Bolam
오늘은십대들이 과제물을 빨리 시작하지 않는 이유를 과학적인 시각으로 살펴보겠습니다.

Tom
And today's guest is a neuroscientist, so get ready for some difficult vocabulary!

Bolam
A neuroscientist는 뇌 과학자를 의미합니다. 오늘 들어볼 BBC Radio 4의 The Life Scientific 에서는 뇌 과학자인 Sarah-Jayne Blackmore교수가 십대의 뇌, 그 중에서도 '전두엽 피질'이라는 부위에 대해서 이야기하고 있습니다.이 부분은 뇌에서 어디에 위치하고 있을까요? 또 어떤 'tasks'일을 담당하고 있을까요?

Insert 1

The pre-frontal cortex is the part of the brain right at the front, just behind the forehead. And it's involved in a whole range of very high-level cognitive tasks such as decision-making and planning.

Tom
So, unsurprisingly, the pre-frontal cortex is at the front of the brain, just behind the forehead.

Bolam
맞습니다. Forehead는 이마를 의미합니다. 'Fore'는 '첫 번째' 또는 '앞면'을 의미하는 접두사로, 'forehead'는 머리의 앞 부분을 나타내죠. 또 다른 예로는 사전숙고라는 의미의 'forethought'가 있습니다.

Tom
Yeah. If we 'give something some forethought', it means we think first, or plan.

Bolam
계획과 'decision making'의사 결정이 바로 뇌의 이 부분에서 담당하고 있었군요!! 이 일들을 묘사하기 위해 'high-level'뒤에 무슨 형용사를 썼나요?

Insert
The pre-frontal cortex is the part of the brain right at the front, just behind the forehead. And it's involved with a whole range of very high-level cognitive tasks such as decision-making and planning.

Tom
She used the word 'cognitive'.

Bolam
우리 뇌의 정신적인 활동을 나타내는 'cognitive'인지의..라는 형용사를 썼습니다. 인지 활동은 뇌에서 이루어집니다. 'Cognitive tasks'..인지활동은 뇌에서 이루어지죠.

Tom
And she also used the expression 'a whole range of' cognitive tasks.

Bolam
'A whole range of' 명사'는 규모가 크고 종류가 다양함을 나타내는 표현입니다.

Tom
Note that the presenter says 'tasks'. I say 'tasks', and this is because of our different British accents. Both are fine, so use whichever one's easiest for you.

Bolam
이 뇌 과학 교수는 'adolescent years'청소년기의 뇌 발달에 대해서 이야기하고 있습니다. 'expectations'기대..라는 단어와 '발달 development'라는 단어는 어떤 관계가 있나요?

Insert
We know that this region is undergoing very, very large amounts of development during the adolescent years. And so in terms of the expectations that we place on teenagers, to, for example, plan their homework, might be too much given that we know that the region of the brain that's critically involved in planning is not developed yet.

Tom
Aha! So, in the last sentence she mentions that the area of the brain involved in planning isn't developed yet!

Bolam
십대들에 대한 기대가 지나치게 높다는 주장을 뒷받침하기 위한 사실을 소개할 때사용한 표현은 무엇이었나요? 'Might be too much'뒤에 오는 단어를 잘 들어보세요.

…the expectations that we place on teenagers, to, for example, plan their homework, might be too much, given that we know that the region of the brain that's critically involved in planning is not developed yet.

Tom
Did you catch it? She said 'given that'.

Bolam
'Given that'은 '~을 고려해봤을 때'라는 의미의 표현입니다.

Tom
So, given that we know that teenagers' brains are still developing, is it fair to expect them to be as good at planning as adults are?

Bolam
저희는 여기까지입니다. 청취해주셔서 감사합니다!

Tom
Thanks for joining us everyone! See you next time for more Listen Here! Goodbye!

Language features

Listen to today’s clip in full here.

Source: The Life Scientific

fore

Fore can be used in many ways and relates to being at the front of something, or first.

The fastest horse was at the fore throughout the race!

It is more often used as a prefix to modify other words.

forehead – the front of your head.
forename –
your first name

We often use the expression ‘give [something] some forethought’. This means to consider something happening in the future.

different accents

There are a lot of different accents in British English. In this episode different speakers pronounce the words ‘tasks’ differently.

When pronouncing words like ‘tasks’, ‘grass’ and ‘castle’, Tom uses /æ/. This is a short vowel sound.
The presenter in the audio clip uses /a:/ - this is a longer vowel sound. You can hear this sound in words like ‘car’ and ‘far’.

Both of these forms are fine to use. Differences in regional accents are widely tolerated within the UK.

cognition

Cognition is a noun which refers to thinking and mental processes. It is a word used in scientific or formal contexts.

Drinking alcohol can lead to impaired cognition.

Cognitive is the adjective form.

The ability to plan is a cognitive function. It comes from the human brain.

adolescence

Adolescence is the period of life during which one’s body changes from a child’s body to that of an adult.

Our son spent a lot of time in his room during his adolescence.

Adolescent
can be used as both an adjective and a countable noun related to this.

The adolescent brain is always developing. (adjective)
I was a very difficult adolescent; I was very moody.
(noun – person).

Why do teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
정답을 고르세요

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Join us for our next episode of Listen Here when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
다음 주 Listen Here 에서도 유용한 표현도 배우고 듣기실력도 키워보아요!

Sesión de vocabulario

  • the last minute
    마지막 순간

    neuroscientist
    뇌 과학자

    pre-frontal cortex
    전두엽 피질

    forehead
    이마

    fore
    앞부분의

    forethought
    사전숙고

    cognitive
    인지의

    adolescent

    청소년기의

    expectations
    기대

    development
    발달