Сеанс работы 14

Age and political opinion. Learn grammar, vocabulary and practice your pronunciation as we examine one scientist’s theory about how these topics are related.

वय आणि राजकीय मत याचा काय संबंध असतो? आजच्या भागात हे जाणून घेऊया.

Сеансы работы в этом уроке

0 / 3

  • 0 / 3
    Упражнение 1

Упражнение 1

How does age affect political opinion?

Today we examine one scientist's theory about how age and political opinion are related.

Before you listen (ऐकण्याआधी)

Consider the following questions:
• Do you think your politicial views have changed as you have got older?
• Have you noticed other people's political views change with their age?
• Do different generations tend to have different political opinions as they get older.

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

Показать текст Скрыть текст

Tejali
Hello! ऐकलंत का? Listen Here! मध्ये तुमचं स्वागत. या मालिकेत आपण वेगवेगळ्या गोष्टींवर चर्चा करतो आणि त्या संदर्भातले शब्द जाणून घेतो. मी तेजाली...

James
And I’m James. Hi everybody!

Tom
Hi, I’m Tom.

Tejali
माणसाच वय आणि त्याची मतदान करण्याची पध्दत, याचा काही संबंध आहे का? आजच्या भागात आपण समजून घेऊया. What’s your opinion on this?

James
Well, I think, generally, here in the UK, people become more conservative as they get older.

Tejali
Jon Krosnick काय म्हणतायत ऐकू. ते स्टॅनफर्ड युनिवर्सिटीत राज्यशास्त्राचे प्राध्यापक आहेत. कुठल्या वयात लोकांचे राजकीय दृष्टीकोन जास्त लवचिक म्हणजे flexible असतात आणि प्रतिसादात्मक म्हणजे responsive असतात, याबद्दल ते सांगतायत. ऐकूया. आकड्यांकडे नीट लक्ष द्या.

Jon Krosnik
Progress through the life cycle from age eighteen through to old age is characterised by, essentially, a U-shaped curve. People are the most open to changing their opinions on political issues when they are at the youngest, adults, and when they are the oldest. We are most flexible, most responsive, ages eighteen to thirty, and then again after age seventy.

James
Hmm, that’s interesting! He said “we are most flexible, most responsive, ages eighteen to thirty, and then again after age seventy”.

Tom
So, he’s saying that people have flexible political opinions at both the start and the end of life.

Tejali
आपलं जीवनचक्र म्हणजे life cycle च्या विविध टप्प्यांवर,- आपला कसा विकास होतो यासाठी त्यांनी एक मस्त शब्दप्रयोग वापरला आहे, कुठला बरं? Essentially नंतरचं ऐका.

Jon Krosnik
Progress  through the life cycle from age eighteen through to old age is characterised by, essentially, a U-shaped curve.

Tom
He said ‘a U-shaped curve’. Note, the American pronunciation is:

Jon Krosnik
a U-shaped curve.

Tom
In British English we use the ‘er’ sound for curve. Let’s practice a few words together – curve and learn.
Repeat after me.

er
curve
er
learn

Tejali
Thanks Tom. So, what’s a u-shaped curve?

James
We can used the suffix ‘-shaped’ to describe the shape of something. Take a T-shirt, for example. The shape is the same as the letter ‘T’. It’s a T-shaped shirt.

Tejali
So a U-shaped curve in life म्हणजे U आकड्यासारखं. एखादी गोष्ट जिथून सुरु होते तिथे पुन्हा परत येते, गोष्ट पूर्वपदावर येते. या सिद्धांताप्रमाणे लोकांची राजकीय मतं जीवनाच्या नंतरच्या टप्प्यात पुन्हा लवचिक बनतात. ‘U-shaped curve’ चा अर्थ नीट कळला का तुम्हाला, हे कशा रितीने वापरलंय हे ? ‘Old age’ नंतर परत ऐका.

Jon Krosnik
Progress through the life cycle from age eighteen through to old age is characterised by, essentially, a U-shaped curve.

James
He said ‘is characterised by’, which means ‘is described or represented by’. Just like Tom is characterised by his loud voice!

Tom
Hey….

Tejali

दुसरा भाग ऐकू आता. प्रोफेसर तरुण मतदारांबद्दल सांगतायत. वयानुसार माणसाची राजकीय मते कशी बदलतात आणि त्यामागचं कारण काय आहे याबद्दल ते सांगतायत ते.

Jon Krosnik
They are inspired to learn more and they simply have not solidified a base of knowledge and a commitment to their points of view. By the time people are in mid-life, they’ve gathered up information they’ve got habits of behaviour, that reinforce the opinions they’ve been living with.

Tom
So, he says young people are inspired to learn more about politics when they begin voting. This makes them flexible.

Tejali
Inspired म्हणजे प्रेरित झालेले. पण ते असंही म्हणाले की तरुणांचे राजकीय विचार डळमळीत असतात, weaker असतात.

James
That’s correct, yes. He says ‘they have not solidified a base of knowledge’, which informs their point of view.

Tejali
Solidify, म्हणजे घट्ट, दृढ झालेलं. To solidify a base of knowledge म्हणजे ज्या पायावर, ज्या आधारावर तुमचं ज्ञाना बेतलेलं आहे, तो आधार, तो पाया भक्कम करणे.

Tom
And this is the opposite of older people, right?

Tejali
Exactly. ऐकुया परत. ‘Mid-life’ म्हणजे आयुष्याच्या मधल्या टप्प्यात, लोकांच्या ठाम राजकीय मतावर कशाचा परिणाम होतो?  

Jon Krosnik
By the time people are in mid-life, they’ve gathered up information they’ve got habits of behaviour that reinforce the opinions that they’ve been living with.

Tom
Ah, so he says that people have got information and habits of behaviour that reinforce their beliefs.

Tejali
Interesting! Reinforce म्हणजे अधिक मजबूत करणे. म्हणजेच जाणीवपूर्वक जोपासलेल्या सवयी म्हणजे habits आपलं राजकीय मत ठाम बनवण्यास मदत करतात. आजचा भाग संपवण्याआधी आजचे शब्द बघू एकदा. आज आपण  flexible, responsive, shaped, characterised by, inspired, mid-life, solidify, आणि reinforce हे शब्द शिकलो. पुन्हा भेटू पुढच्या भागात.

Language features

shaped

We can add -shaped to a noun to describe qualities of shape. In the script, we use u-shaped to say something is in the shape of the letter u. We need to use a hyphen before the word shaped.

The structure is also used in several idiomatic expressions. For example:

After the airline cancelled my flights my holiday plans went pear-shaped.

If we say something goes pear-shaped, we mean that it changes form in a negative way.

characterised by

We use the expression ‘characterised by’ to introduce the distinctive feature(s) of a person or thing.

This is a delicious French cheese, characterised by its strong smell.
The government’s approach to political policy is characterised by chaos and confusion!

reinforce

To reinforce means ‘to make stronger’. We can reinforce things which are both physical and abstract.

We need to reinforce the walls in our house, as they’re starting to look dangerous.
Seeing the poverty in the countryside really reinforced my belief that we need to look after our citizens more.

How does age affect political opinion?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
योग्य उत्तर निवडा.

Поздравления
Excellent! Отлично! Bad luck! Вы набрали:
x / y

Join us for our next episode of Listen Here! when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयांवर बोलणार आहोत.

Сеанс работы над грамматикой

Сеанс работы над лексикой

  • flexible
    लवचिक

    responsive
    प्रतिसादात्मक

    shape
    आकार

    characteristics
    वैशिष्ट्य

    inspired
    प्रेरित

    mid-life
    मध्यमवय

    solidify
    दृढ होणे 

    reinforce
    मजबुतीकरण