Сеанс работы 12

With the number of food allergies on the rise in the UK, in this episode of Listen Here, we discuss what might be one of the leading causes of this phenomenon.
युकेमध्ये अन्नामुळे होणाऱ्या अॅलर्जी वाढत चालल्यात. याचं काय कारण असेल ते आजच्या भागात ऐकू. 

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    Упражнение 1

Упражнение 1

Why might you develop a food allergy?

An increasing number of allergic reaction patients in hospitals are due to food allergies – why might this be happening?
हल्ली हॉस्पिटलमध्ये अॅलर्जीच्या रूग्णांची संख्या वाढली आहे. यामागे काय कारणं आहेत?

Before you listen (ऐकण्याआधी)Consider the following questions:

-What are some common types of food allergies?
-How might having a food allergy affect your life?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

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Tejali
Hello! ऐकलंत का? Listen Here! मध्ये तुमचं स्वागत. या मालिकेत आपण निरनिराळे विषय आणि त्या संदर्भातले शब्द जाणून घेतो. मी तेजाली...

James
I’m James- hi everybody.

Tom
and I am Tom – welcome back!

James
So guys, do you have any food allergies? You know foods that your body is sensitive to and you have to avoid?

Tejali
आज बोलणार आहोत food allergies बद्दल म्हणजे अन्नपदार्थांच्या अॅलर्जीबद्दल. Like, I am allergic to eggs; अंडी खाल्ली की मला त्रास होतो. How about you Tom?

Tom
 No, I never have to watch what I eat.

Tejali
‘To watch what you eat’ म्हणजे आपण जे खातो त्याकडे नीट लक्ष देणे.

James
No, me neither!

Tejali
आजच्या भागात बालरोगतज्ज्ञ अॅडम फॉक्स, अन्नपदार्थांपासून होणाऱ्या त्रासाबद्दल बोलणार आहेत. Allergic म्हणजे एखाद्या गोष्टी किंवा पदार्थाचं वावडं असलेला. अशा लोकांना त्या पदार्थामुळे किंवा गोष्टीमुळे त्रास होतो. Allergy साठी मराठी शब्द आहे वावडं. हे असे त्रास हल्ली कमी झालेत की वाढलेत, ऐकूया.

Adam Fox
I think we can be very confident, if you look back over, say, 30 or 40 years that there are much more allergic problems around now than there were. So for example, very robust studies that look at the prevalence of things like eczema and food allergy do show really significant increases. Over the course of around five years, there was over a 300% increase in the amount of visits for severe allergic reactions.

Tejali
Robust
 म्हणजे मजबूत. Prevalence म्हणजे फैलाव किंवा प्रादुर्भाव. Significant increase म्हणजे लक्षणीय वाढ. So how significant was the increase in the number of children who visited hospital with food allergies?  

Tom
He said over 300% - that’s incredible. Who’d have thought it had increased so much!

James
I know! But did you hear what he said?

Adam Fox
If you look back over the past 30 or 40 years that there are much more allergic problems than there were.

Tom
Oh yeh! He used the zero conditional – that’s when you use ‘if’ with two present tense clauses.

James
That’s right Tom – we often use it when we’re talking about things that are always true, like scientific facts. For example, ‘If you eat healthy food, you don’t get fat’.

Tejali
खऱ्या गोष्टींबद्दल, त्यातही शास्त्रीय तथ्यांबद्दल बोलताना zero conditional चा वापर करतात.यात if येतं आणि त्यानंतर 2 वर्तमानकाळी वाक्यं येतात. उदा.‘If you heat up water, it boils’. जर पाणी गरम केलं तर ते उकळतं. दुसरं उदाहरण काय दिलंय? – अन्नपदार्थांतून होणारा संसर्ग साधारणपणे कोणत्या वयोगटातील मुलांना होतो? काय सांगतायत ते? ऐकूया.

Adam Fox
If you look, dig a little bit deeper into the numbers, it’s quite specifically an increase in younger children having food allergies.

Tejali
ते म्हणाले की लहान मुलांमधे अन्नपदार्थांच्या अॅलर्जीचं प्रमाण वाढलं आहे. Can you repeat the example of the zero conditional please?

Tom
He said ‘If you dig’, and ‘It is’ – ‘dig’ and ‘is’ are both present tense verbs.

James
So, if allergies are becoming more common, what is the cause then?

Adam Fox
There is a key role for eczema. So, there’s a pretty direct relationship between whether you’ve got eczema during infancy and your likelihood of getting a food allergy.

Tejali
Infancy
म्हणजेच बाल्यावस्था. Likelihood म्हणजे शक्यता. यूकेच्या डॉक्टरांना त्वचेच्या समस्या असणारी मुलं आणि अन्नपदार्थांमूळे त्रास होणारी मुलं यांच्यात साम्य आढळलंय.   

James
let’s listen to some of what Dr. Fox said again.

Adam Fox
so, there’s a pretty direct relationship between whether you’ve got eczema during infancy.

James
some of the doctor’s pronunciation sounded really strange! He said ‘ginfancy’, not ‘infancy’. Did he make a mistake?

Tom
No! ‘During’ ends with a /g/ sound. ‘Infancy’ begins with a vowel sound. Sometimes, in connected speech, the two sounds join together. So we get ‘during infancy’.

James
let’s practice some of this pronunciation. Repeat after me.

An
Allergy
An allergy

Tejali

let’s review some of today’s vocabulary!Allergy म्हणजे त्रास, वावडं. Eczema म्हणजे गजकर्ण. Robust म्हणजे मजबूत. Prevalence म्हणजे प्रभाव, प्रादुर्भाव, significant increase म्हणजे लक्षणीय वाढ. Infancy म्हणजे बाल्यावस्था. Likelihood शक्यता.

James
if you want more Listen Here, tune in next week!

Tejali
आज इथेच थांबू पुन्हा भेटू Listen here च्या पुढच्या भागातBye!

Language features

allergy
an allergy is a medical condition when your body detects certain products or chemicals as being harmful to you, and a ‘reaction’ occurs. The reaction can vary, but common symptoms are swelling, itchiness or irritation, and nausea.

अॅलर्जी  ही वैद्यकीय संज्ञा आहे.  एखादा पदार्थ किंवा रसायन एखाद्या व्यक्तीला मानवत नाही. असे पदार्थ शरीरात गेल्यास त्या व्यक्तीला शारीरिक त्रास होतो. हा त्रास वेगवेगळा असू शकतो पण सूज येणे, खाज येणे किंवा मळमळ ही याची सामान्य लक्षणं आहेत.

to watch what you eat
This is an expression meaning that you take great care in what foods you consume. This could because you have an allergy to the food, or because you are on a diet.

आपण जे खातो त्याचा कदाचित आपल्याला त्रास होऊ, ते अन्न आपल्याला बाधू शकतं.  त्यामुळे अन्न काळजीपूर्वक ग्रहण करावे. खाताना नीट लक्ष असावे असं सांगण्यासाठी  to watch what you eat वापरतात.

eczema
Eczema is a skin condition that makes your skin itchy and peel.

Eczema म्हणजे गजकर्ण. यात त्वचेला खाज येते आणि त्वचेचे पापुद्रे निघतात.  

genetics
Genetics is related to the traits that you inherit from your parents or ancestors. For example, some physical traits (blue eyes/red hair etc.) are genetic, and are passed down from parent to child.

अनुवांशिक म्हणजे आई वडील किंवा पूर्वजांकडून आलेले गुणधर्म. उदा. शरीराची ठेवण (डोळ्यांचा, केसांचा रंग). 

Why might you develop a food allergy?

4 Questions

Test your knowledge of the zero conditional. Put the words in the correct order.
Zero conditional बद्दल तुम्हाला किती समजलंय ते तपासा. हे शब्द योग्य क्रमाने लावा.

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Join us for our next episode of Listen Here! when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयांवर बोलणार आहोत.

Сеанс работы над грамматикой

  • The Zero Conditional

    The zero conditional is formed by two clauses, an ‘if’ clause, and a result clause.

    In the zero conditional, both the ‘if’ and result clause are present tenses.
    For example,

    If you burn paper, it produces smoke.’

    Both ‘burn’ and ‘produces’ are the present simple.

    It is also possible to use the present continuous tense.

    For example,

    ‘If I am visiting my grandma, I make her dinner.’

    We use the zero conditional to talk about things that always (or almost always) happen. For example, when we talk about scientific processes or things that we do regularly in day-to-day 

Сеанс работы над лексикой

  • Robust
    मजबूत, भरभक्कम

    Prevalence of
    फैलाव, प्रादुर्भाव

    Infancy
    बाल्यावस्था

    Likelihood
    शक्यता