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Penguins have a distinctive walk, or ‘waddle’. Today we discover the scientific theory that explains why penguins waddle.
पेंग्विनच्या चालण्याची एक विशिष्ट ढब असते, लहान मुलांसारखे ते दुडूदुडू चालतात. ही ढब कशी निर्माण झाली याबद्दल आजच्या भागात माहिती घेऊया.  

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Why do penguins waddle?

Penguins have a distinctive walk, or ‘waddle’. Today we discover the scientific theory that explains why penguins waddle.
पेंग्विनच्या चालण्याची एक विशिष्ट ढब असते, लहान मुलांसारखे ते दुडूदुडू चालतात. ही ढब कशी निर्माण झाली याबद्दल आजच्या भागात माहिती घेऊया.

Before you listen/Pre-listening

1) How many words can you think of that describe penguins and the way that they walk?

2) How can scientists compare animals today to animals in the past?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

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Tejali
Hello!ऐकलंत का? Listen Hereमध्ये तुमचं स्वागत! मी तेजाली...

Tom
And hello again everyone, I’m Tom. Good news for animal lovers! Today we are discussing penguins and asking the question ‘why do penguins waddle?’

Tejali
लहान मुलं, बाळं त्यांच्या छोट्या छोट्या पावलांनी थोडं अडखळत चालतात, दुडूदुडू धावतात. अशा प्रकारच्या चालण्याला किंवा धावण्याला to waddleअसं म्हणतात.

Tom

Let’s listen to the first part of today’s clip from BBC Radio 4’s Today Programme!

Tejali
Good idea! ही प्रेझेंटर लंडनच्या प्राणीसंग्रहालयातून एक माहिती देतीये. तिथे पेंग्विनच्या चालण्याचा अभ्यास चालू आहे. त्यांच्या हालचालींचा अभ्यास नीट करता यावा, यासाठी तिकडे एक High tech ट्रॅक ही बनवण्यात आला आहे.पेंग्विनच्या चालण्याचं वर्णन करण्यासाठी ती कुठले शब्द वापरते? ऐका.

Presenter
With its tiny legs and stiff, upright posture a penguin has a waddle that's more than a little ungainly. But by installing a high-tech track in London Zoo, scientists will measure every tiny movement the birds make.

Tom
Did you hear that penguin? She mentions posture

Tejali
Posture म्हणजे शरीराची ठेवण. व्यक्ती उभी असताना किंवा बसलेली असताना तिच्या शरीराची स्थिती कशी असते याचं वर्णन करताना posture हा शब्द वापरतात. तिने पेंग्विनच्या शरीराचं वर्णन करताना ‘stiff’, and ‘upright’ असं केलं. Stiff म्हणजे ताठ आणि upright म्हणजे सरळ, उभं. पेंग्विन ताठ, सरळ उभे राहतात असं तिला म्हणायचं आहे.

Tom
And she also describes the waddle as ‘ungainly’.

Tejali

Ungainly म्हणजे बेढब, बेडौल.  याचे समानार्थी शब्द आहेत awkward आणि clumsy.

Tom
The presenter actually uses a phrase before ‘ungainly’. What is it? Listen again after ‘the penguin has a waddle’…
          
Presenter
With its tiny legs and stiff, upright posture a penguin has a waddle that's more than a little ungainly.

Tom
She said ‘that’s more than a little ungainly’.

Tejali
More than a little
, म्हणजे quite; म्हणजे थोडं जास्त. त्याचं चालणं दुडूदुडूपेक्षाही, बेडौल जास्त  वाटतं. मग Why doesn’t they say ‘quite ungainly’? That’s much simpler!

Tom
Well, we often say this when we want to suggest something slightly negative in a more positive manner. Plus, the rhythm sounds good. Say it with me to practise!

‘a little’
‘more than a little’
‘more than a little ungainly’!

Can you give us an example now?

Tejali
Hmm… Working with you is more than a little difficult, sometimes! अत्याधुनिक ट्रॅकचा वापर करून संशोधक पेंग्विनच्या हालचालींचा अभ्यास करत आहेत; असं टॉमने सांगितलं. यातून मिळालेली माहिती नंतर ते जुन्या माहितीशी पडताळून पाहतील.

Tom
We can find stones or rocks with animal remains inside them. What’s the name for these? Let’s listen again!

Presenter          
But by installing a high-tech track in London Zoo, scientists will measure every tiny movement the birds make. The researchers will then compare this data with penguin fossils.

Tom
Aha! She said penguin fossils!

Tejali
A fossil म्हणजे जीवाश्म. प्राणी पक्षी जेव्हा जमिनीखाली गाडले जातात तेव्हा त्यांच्यावर प्रचंड दाब येतो आणि त्यांच्या अवशेषांचं दगडात रुपांतर होतं किंवा त्यांच्या अवशेषांचे ठसे दगडावर उमटतात. याला जीवाश्म म्हणतात. या जीवाष्मांमुळे प्राचीन काळातील जीवनसृष्टी कशी होती हे समजायला मदत होते. आता जरा थांबू. पेंग्विनचं posture, stiff, uprightअसतं आणि त्यांचे पाय छोटे असतात असं आपण आत्ता ऐकलं. पण त्यांचे पूर्वजही तसेच होते का?

Presenter          
The researchers will then compare this data with penguin fossils. They think that the ancient birds didn't waddle and had a more horizontal posture with different leg anatomy. The scientists suspect that as modern-day penguins became better adapted to swimming, they became more clumsy on land.

Tom

So, they aren’t the same!We’ve heard how modern penguins have an upright posture. Penguins in the past were the opposite!  They had a horizontal posture.

Tejali
Horizontal, म्हणजे जमिनीला किंवा क्षितीजाला समांतर, which means they were lying flat!

Tom
Right! Their legs have probably adapted over time as their posture changed.

Tejali
To adapt म्हणजे जुळवून घेणे. याचा वाक्यात उपयोग करताना ‘adapt to’ + [नाम (noun)/क्रियापद] पण क्रियापद वापरताना त्यासोबत–ING वापरायचं. पण पेंग्विन्सनी कशाला जुळवून घेतलं?

Presenter
           
The scientists suspect that as modern-day penguins became better adapted to swimming, they became more clumsy on land.

Tom
So, penguins adapted to swimming. This means the anatomy,or structure, of their legs changed to become more suitable for water.

Tejali
And that’s why they’re clumsy, म्हणजे गोंधळलेला किंवा विस्कटलेला.!

Tom
Exactly! So, have you adapted to presenting Listen Here yet?

Tejali
I think I’ve adapted by now! And we hope your ears are adapting to our show! आणखी जाणून घेण्यासाठी पुढचा भाग नक्की ऐका. Tom! Say goodbye.

Tom
Bye everyone! See you next time!

Tejali

Bye.

Language features

Listen to today’s clip in full here.

Source: Today

horizontal/upright posture

Posture relates to position. It describes someone’s position when they are standing or sitting. 

- You should sit up straight at your desk! A bad posture can cause back pain.

Horizontal describes something which lies flat or level with the ground.  The opposite of horizontal is vertical. Upright is a synonym of vertical which. It’s commonly used when referring to posture.

to adapt 

To adapt means ‘to change in accordance with something’.

- After I had a baby I adapted my bike – it now has two seats instead of one!


To become adapted
describes the process of changing when change is influenced by important factors.

- Otters have become adapted to cold water. They have thick fur which keeps them warm.

anatomy

Anatomy is a noun used to refer to the structure of the body.

- The anatomy of a shark is perfect for hunting in the sea. They have sharp teeth and can breathe underwater using gills.

The subject name for the study of bodily structure is also anatomy.

- I need to leave or I will be late for anatomy class!

Why do penguins waddle?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
योग्य उत्तर निवडा.

Parabéns! Você completou o exercício.
Excellent! Excelente! Bad luck! Você acertou:
x / y

Join us for our next episode of Listen Here when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयावर बोलणार आहोत.

Vocabulário desta lição

  • waddle
    दुडूदुडू चालणे/ धावणे  

    stiff

    ताठ 

    upright
    उभं 

    posture
    ठेवण 

    ungainly
    बेडौल 

    clumsy
    गोंधळलेला 

    fossils
    जीवाश्म 

    anatomy
    शरीररचना शास्त्र 

    to adapt
    जुळवून घेणे