Lição 2

Today we examine one scientist’s analysis of teenagers, homework and the brain. Can she explain why teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?
वाढत्या वयातल्या मुलांच्या मेंदूची वाढ आणि त्यांचा गृहपाठ याचा काही संबंध असतो का हे एका शास्त्रज्ञाच्या मदतीने आपण ते आजच्या भागात समजून घेणार आहोत.

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Why do teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?

Today we examine one scientist’s analysis of teenagers, homework and the brain.
वाढत्या वयातल्या मुलांच्या मेंदूची वाढ आणि त्यांचा गृहपाठ याचा काही संबंध असतो का हे एका शास्त्रज्ञाच्या मदतीने आपण ते आजच्या भागात समजून घेणार आहोत.

Before you listen!

1) How many reasons can you think of that explain why many teenagers leave their homework until the last minute?

2) Check the Session Vocabulary. Make sure you understand what these pieces of vocabulary mean.

- Pre-frontal cortex
- Neuroscientist

3) Based on the vocabulary in Question 2, what kinds of reasons do you think we will learn about today?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

Mostre a transcrição Oculte a transcrição

Tejali
Hello, ऐकलंत का?  Listen Here मध्ये तुमचं स्वागत. बीबीसीच्या बातम्या तर आपण नेहमी ऐकतोच पण या मालिकेमध्ये या बातम्यांमधले शब्द आपण समजून घेणार आहोत. आणि यासाठी माझ्यासोबत आहे…

Tom
And I am Tom. Hi everyone!  Today we re talking about teenagers, homework and the brain.

Tejali
तू लहानपणी वेळेवर गृहपाठ करायचास का?

Tom
Yeah I did, but, often at the last minute, which means as late as possible!

Tejali
पौगंडावस्थेतील मुलं गृहपाठ करायला कंटाळा करतात, अगदी शेवटच्या क्षणी गृहपाठाला बसतात. पण असं करण्यामागे मेंदूचं काही विज्ञान आहे का? ते आजच्या भागात समजून घेऊ.

Tom
And today ‘s guest is a neuroscientist, so get ready for some difficult vocabulary!

Tejali
A neuroscientist म्हणजे मेंदूशास्त्रज्ञ. आज बीबीसी रेडियो 4 वर The Life Scientificमध्ये सारा जेन ब्लॅकमोर आहेत. त्या मेंदूशास्त्रज्ञ आहेत. वाढत्या वयातील मुलांच्या pre-frontal cortex  म्हणजे मेंदूच्या पुढच्या भागाचं बाह्यावरण याबद्दल त्या सांगतायत. काय घडतं मेंदूच्या या भागात? मेंदूच्या या भागाकडे कुठले tasks म्हणजे कुठल्या जबाबदाऱ्या दिलेल्या असतात याबद्दल त्या सांगतायत.

Insert 
The pre-frontal cortex is the part of the brain right at the front, just behind the forehead. And it's involved in a whole range of very high-level cognitive tasks such as decision-making and planning. And we know that this region is undergoing very, very large amounts of development during the adolescent years. And so in terms of the expectations that we place on teenagers, to, for example, plan their homework, might be too much given that we know that the region of the brain that’s critically involved in planning is not developed yet.

Tom
So, unsurprisingly, the pre-frontal cortex is at the front of the brain, just behind the forehead.

Tejali
Correct.  Forehead म्हणजे कपाळ. Head ला fore चा उपसर्ग लागला आहे. या foreचा अर्थ होतो पहिला किंवा पुढचा. Forehead म्हणजे डोक्याचा समोरचा भाग. Fore च्या वापराचं आणखी एक उदाहरण forethought म्हणजे पुढचा विचार.   

Tom
Yeah. If we give something some forethought, it means we think first, or plan.

Tejali
नियोजन आणि निर्णय घेणं हेमेंदूच्या या भागाचं मुख्य काम असतं. निर्णय घेणं म्हणजे decision-making. पण high-level सोबत तिने कुठलं विशेषण वापरलं?

Insert
The pre-frontal cortex is the part of the brain right at the front, just behind the forehead. And it’s involved with a whole range of very high-level cognitive tasks such as decision-making and planning.

Tom
She used the word cognitive.

Tejali
Cognitive म्हणजे आकलनात्मक. हे मेंदूच्या मानसिक वर्तनाशी संबंधित असतं. Cognitive हे मेंदूच्या कामाचं वर्णन करणारं विशेषण आहे. Cognitive tasks म्हणजे मेंदूचे कार्य.

Tom
And she also used the expression a whole range of cognitive tasks.

Tejali
A whole range म्हणजे संपूर्ण श्रेणी, यात संपूर्ण प्रमाण आणि वैविध्य या दोन्हीचाही समावेश होतो,

Tom
Note that the presenter says tasks. I say tasks, and this is because of our different British accents. Both are fine, so use whichever one’s easiest for you.

Tejali
मेंदू शास्त्रज्ञ adolescent years पौगंडावस्थेतील मेंदूच्या वाढीबद्दल बोलतायत. Expectations म्हणजे अपेक्षा आणि development म्हणजे विकास यांचा परस्परसंबंध काय आहे?

Insert
We know that this region is undergoing very, very large amounts of development during the adolescent years. And so in terms of the expectations that we place on teenagers, to, for example, plan their homework, might be too much given that we know that the region of the brain that’s critically involved in planning is not developed yet.

Tom
Aha! So, in the last sentence she mentions that the area of the brain involved in planning isn’t developed yet!

Tejali
That’s right! मुलांकडून आपण जास्त अपेक्षा ठेवतो असं ती म्हणाली, पण हे सांगताना तिने कुठला शब्द वापरला? Might be too much यानंतर काय आहे ऐका.

Insert
…the expectations that we place on teenagers, to, for example, plan their homework, might be too much, given that we know that the region of the brain that   s critically involved in planning is not developed yet.

Tom
Did you catch it? She said given that.

Tejali
Given that चा अर्थ होतो.... लक्षात घेता. एखादी गोष्ट लक्षात घेता.

Tom
So, given that we know that teenagers   brains are still developing, is it fair to expect them to be as good at planning as adults are? What do you think?

Tejali
Well, Tom, given that we’ re out of time, I don’t think I can answer that question! Why not get in touch and tell us your opinion? Thanks for joining us! Bye!

Language features

fore

Fore can be used in many ways and relates to being at the front of something, or first.

The fastest horse was at the fore throughout the race!

It is more often used as a prefix to modify other words.

forehead – the front of your head.
forename –
your first name

We often use the expression ‘give [something] some forethought’. This means to consider something happening in the future.

different accents

There are a lot of different accents in British English. In this episode different speakers pronounce the words ‘tasks’ differently.

When pronouncing words like ‘tasks’, ‘grass’ and ‘castle’, Tom uses/æ/. This is a short vowel sound.
The presenter in the audio clip uses /a:/ - this is a longer vowel sound. You can hear this sound in words like ‘car’ and ‘far’.

Both of these forms are fine to use. Differences in regional accents are widely tolerated within the U.K.

cognition

Cognition is a noun which refers to thinking and mental processes. It is a word used in scientific or formal contexts.

Drinking alcohol can lead to impaired cognition.

Cognitive is the adjective form.

The ability to plan is a cognitive function. It comes from the human brain.

adolescence

Adolescence is the period of life during which one’s body changes from a child’s body to that of an adult.

Our spent a lot of time in his room during his adolescence.

Adolescent
can be used as both an adjective and a countable noun related to this.

The adolescent brain is always developing. (adjective)
I was a very difficult adolescent; I was very moody.(
nounperson).


Why do teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
योग्य उत्तर निवडा.

Parabéns! Você completou o exercício.
Excellent! Excelente! Bad luck! Você acertou:
x / y

Join us for our next episode of Listen Here when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयावर बोलणार आहोत.

Vocabulário desta lição

  • the last minute
    शेवटच्या मिनिटाला, शेवटच्या क्षणी 

    neuroscientist
    मेदू शास्त्रज्ञ 

    pre-frontal cortext
    मेंदूच्या पुढच्या भागाचं बाह्यावरण

    forehead
    कपाळ 

    fore
    पुढचं 

    forethought
    पुढचा विचार 

    cognitive
    आकलनात्मक 

    adolescent

    पौगंडावस्था

    expectations
    अपेक्षा 

    development
    विकास