جلسه 1

Millions of people finish their messages with an X, which means 'kiss' in English. Learn how X came to mean 'kiss' in today's episode!
ብሚልዮናት ዝቑጸሩ ሰባት መልእኽቶም ብ 'X' ይውድእዎ። ብእንግሊዘኛ ከኣ ምስዓም ማለት ኢዩ።
ኣብ ናይ ሎሚ መደብና ብኸመይ 'X' ምስዓም ክኸውን ከም ዝኸኣለ ክንመሃር ኢና።

جلسه های این واحد

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    تمرین 1

تمرین 1

Why does X 'kiss' in English?

Millions of people finish their messages with an X, which means ‘kiss’ in English. Learn how X came to mean ‘kiss’ in today’s episode!
ብሚልዮናት ዝቑጸሩ ሰባት መልእኽቶም ብ ‘X’ ይውድእዎ። ብእንግሊዘኛ ከኣ ምስዓም ማለት ኢዩ።
ኣብ ናይ ሎሚ መደብና ብኸመይ ‘X’ ምስዓም ክኸውን ከም ዝኸኣለ ክንመሃር ኢና።

Before you listen!

Consider the following questions:

  • How long have people been speaking your native language?
  • Does your language ‘borrow’ words or symbols from other languages? What are they?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

نشان دادن متن پنهان کردن متن

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
ሰላም፡ እንቋዕ ናብዚ ሓቀኛ ዛንታት ቋንቋ እንግሊዝ ሰሚዕኩም ንክትርድኡ ዝሕግዘኩም መደብ Listen Here ብደሓን  መጻእኩም። ኣነ ተክለማርያም በኪት ኢየ።

Tom
And I'm Tom! Hi everybody!

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
ሎሚ፡ ኣብ መወዳእታ ናይ ሓደ መልእኽቲ ዝጸሓፍ ‘X’  ብኸመይ ‘ምስዓም’ ዝብል ትርጉም ክዋሃቦ ከም ዝጀመረ ክንርኢ ኢና።
Do you put X on the end of your message, Tom?

Tom
I do, actually, yes, but only with my mother!

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
ካብ መደብ ቢቢሲ ራድዮ 4 Word of Mouth ዝረኸብናዯ ቀዳማይ ክፋል ድምጺ ንከታተል። መዓስ’ዩ እቲ ናይ መጀመርታ ኤክስ ኣብ መወዳእታ ናይ ሓደ መልእኽቲ ተጻሒፉ? ክንደይ ሳዕ ተሳዒሙ? ክንደይ ሳዕ ከም ዝነበረ ንምፍላጥ ንከታተል!

Insert
Woman

Well, we've been adding Xs, for kisses, at the bottom of our letters, since at least 1763, so the very first one we know of had seven Xs!

Tom
She said 'since at least 1763'!

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
Wow! More than 250 years ago! And she said there were seven Xs!

Tom
That's right! 'X' starts with a vowel sound.
Often, words which begin with vowel sounds can take the last sound of the word which comes before. 'Seven Xs', then, is pronounced 'seveNexes'. I could also say 'seveNever'.
Listen again for 'seveNexes'. Which verb and preposition come before?

Insert
Woman

Well, we've been adding Xs, for kisses, at the bottom of our letters, since at least 1763, so the very first one we know of had seven Xs!

Tom
She said 'the very first one we know of'.

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
'know of' እንጥቀመሉ እዋን፡ ሓደ ነገር ከም ዘሎ ከም እንፈልጥን፡ እንተኸነ ግና  ብዛዕብኡ  ዝርዝራዊ ኣፍልጦ ምስ ዘይብልና እዩ።

Tom
So, we know of a piece of evidence – this is the old letter which contains Xs.

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
ካብቲ ሓፈሻዊ ኣፍልጦ ዘስምዕ 'know about' ዝብል ሓረግ ይፍለ’ዩ።

Tom
We know of the letter, but we still don't understand our main question! We need to know about X. Why does X mean kiss in English?

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
Let's listen to the rest of the clip for the answer! እታ 'X' እትብል ቃል ካበይ ዝበቖለት’ያ? ብኸመይ’ከ ትድመጽ?  

Insert
Woman
We get X from the Roman alphabet, which got it from the Greek alphabet, pronounced 'kss'. And the Romans certainly found it good for…

Man
Oh! That's nearly a kiss, isn't it?!

Woman
Yeah, it is, isn't it? I think a penny's just dropped there.

Tom
So, X comes from the Roman alphabet! And they pronounced it 'kss'.

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
Exactly! The Roman alphabet ሮማዊ ፊደላት ማለት’ዩ። ደጊምና ንስማዕ። ክልቲኦም ኣቕረብቲ ንርዲኢቶም ንምርግጋጽ ዝጥቀምሉ ሕቶ እንታይ’ዩ? 

Insert
Woman
We get X from the Roman alphabet, which got it from the Greek alphabet, pronounced 'kss'. And the Romans certainly found it good for…

Man
Oh! That's nearly a kiss, isn't it?!

Woman
Yeah, it is, isn't it?

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
እቶም ኣቕረብቲ ላቔባ ሕቶ’ዮም ዝጥቀሙ። እዞም ሕቶታት ኣብ መወዳእታ ናይ ሓደ ተደራቢ ሓሳብ ዝመጽኡ’ዮም።

Tom
So, after 'it is', we could say 'isn't it'.

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
ግርም። እቲ ተዛራባይ ዝያዳ መልሲ ከም ዝደሊ ብዘስምዕ ኣገባብ ክልቶም ሕቶታት ይጽቀጡ’ዮም። ልዕል እናበለ ዝኸይድ ኣደማምጻ ኣለዎ።

Tom
That's right! Repeat after me. We'll begin with the stressed question. Ready?

isn't it?

it is, isn't it?

Yeah, it is, isn't it?

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
ሕጂ፡ ክልቲኦም ተዛረብቲ ዘለዎም ፍልጠት በተን ላቔባ ሕቶታት ኣረጋጊጾም ኣለዉ። ነዚ ዝተረኽበ ሓደሽ ርዲኢቶም ብዛዕብኡ ንምዝራብ ዘኽእሎም እንታይ ዓይነት ላህጃ ተጠቒሞም።

Insert
Man
Oh! That's nearly a kiss, isn't it?!

Woman
Yeah, it is, isn't it? I think a penny's just dropped there.

Tom
They used the idiom 'the penny's dropped'.

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
'The penny has dropped' ክንብል እንከሎና፡ ድሕሪ ክንደይ ተረዲኡና ማለትና ኢና።

Tom
Hopefully, the penny's dropped for you, too, now we know about X, and we know why it means kiss in English. I think this is a good time to finish, isn't it?

ኣቕራቢቋንቋትግርኛ
That's right! ኣብዚ ሰሙን’ዚ ምሳና ኣብ መደብ Listen here ስለዝቐነኹም ነመስግን። ደሓን ኩኑ።

Tom
See you next week everybody! And I'm signing off with an X!

Language features

Sound linking
Cosonant to vowel linking is when the first word ends with a consonant sound and the second word begins with a vowel sound. 

'SEVen EXes' becomes 'seveNEXes'.

'SEVen EVer' becomes 'seveNEVer'.

Tag questions
Tag questions come at the end of a clause. We use them to check our understanding of something, or ask for confirmation. The auxiliary verb in the tag questions matches that of the clause.
When the first clause is positive, the tag question is negative.

You're an English teacher, aren't you?

If the first clause is negative, the question is positive.

School isn't open next week, is it?

If the first clause does not contain an auxiliary verb, we need to add one to the second clause.

You work in the bank, don't you?

The penny has dropped
This is an idiomatic expression we use when we have finally learned or realised something. It implies a period of waiting has taken place. The expression is flexible – we can use it in different tenses.

I studied Spanish grammar for six months before the penny dropped! Now I can speak easily and fluently.

Thanks for explaining our homework! The penny has finally dropped and I won't need any more help.


Sources
Today's clip is from BBC Radio 4's Word of Mouth:
https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qtnz/episodes/player

 

Why does X mean 'kiss' in English?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
ቕኑዕ መልሲ ምረጹ።

تبریک می گوییم
Excellent! آفرین! نمره شما Bad luck! :
x / y

Join us for our next episode of Listen Here! when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
ኣብ ዝቕጽል መደብ Listen Here ኣገደስቲ ናይ ኢንግሊዝኛ ዝርርብን ናይ ምስማዕ ክእለትኩም እተመሐይሹሉ መደብ ሒዝናልኩም ክንቀርብ ኢና’ሞ ብሰላም የራኽበና። 

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واژه های تازه این جلسه

  • Xs
    ብዙሕ ናይ 'X'

    alphabet
    ፊደል

    know of
    ፈለጠ (እኹል ሓበሬታ እንተ ዘይብልና ንጥቀመሉ)

    know about
    ፈለጠ (እኹል ሓበሬታ ወይ ፍልጠት እንተለና ንጥቀመሉ)

    the penny has dropped
    ድሕሪ ክንደይ ፈተነ፡ ኣማስያኡ ተረዲእዎ