جلسه 5

Can the behaviour of chickens teach us about our own behaviour? Some studies say it can! Today we are explaining the ideas behind this theory.
कोंबड्यांकडून माणूस काही शिकू शकतो का? हे संशोधन सांगतंय .. हो! यामागची कहाणी ऐकू आजच्या भागात.

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What can chickens teach us about productivity?

Can the behaviour of chickens teach us about our own behaviour? Some studies say it can! Today we are explaining the ideas behind this theory.
कोंबड्यांकडून माणूस काही शिकू शकतो का? हे संशोधन सांगतंय .. हो! यामागची कहाणी ऐकू आजच्या भागात. 

Before you listen/Pre-listening

    Consider the following questions:
1) How might chickens and humans demonstrate similar behaviour?
2) In which parts of society are humans organised into structures of command?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

نشان دادن متن پنهان کردن متن

Tejali
Hello! ऐकलंत का? Listen Here मध्ये तुमचं स्वागत. या मालिकेत आपण बातम्यांमध्ये वापरलेल्या शब्दांचा उहापोह करतो आणि त्यांचे अर्थ जाणून घेतो. मी तेजाली आणि माझ्यासोबत आहे टॉम.

Tom

I’m Tom! Hi everyone! Now, chickens are not famous for being clever. In fact, if someone is foolish in English we often call them a bird brain. However, today we’re looking at what we can learn from chickens.

Tejali
बरोबर! कोंबड्यांची productivity म्हणजे उत्पादकतेबद्दल केलेल्या अभ्यासाबद्दल आज शास्त्रज्ञ सांगत आहेत. 

Tom

The experiment looked at two flocks of chickens – an average flock and a super-flock.

Tejali
A flock म्हणजे कोंबड्यांचा कळप. यांचे दोन प्रकार आहेत an average flockम्हणजे साध्या कोंबड्यांचा समूहआणि  a super-flock उत्तम कोंबड्यांचा समूह. मोठं किंवा आणखी शक्तिशाली सांगण्यासाठी super वापरतात.

Tom
We can. Super comes from superior, meaning ‘better’. So, the super-flock was made of chickens chosen by scientists because they were the best at producing eggs. Or, we could say ‘laying’ eggs.

Tejali
The Joy of 9-to-5मधली ही क्लिप ऐका. मानसशास्त्रज्ञ त्यांच्या संशोधनाचं सार सांगत आहेत. Super-chickens मधल्या किती कोंबड्या जिवंत राहिल्या? ऐकूया.

Scientist
       
He compares the two flocks over six generations. The average flock just gets better and better and better. Egg production increases dramatically. The super-flock of super-chickens, right, at the end of six generations all but three are dead. Because the other three have killed the rest.

Tom
She said ‘all but three’, which means most of the super-flock died! That’s not very ‘super’ at all!

Tejali
कसं म्हटलंय ? ‘All but’ आणि पुढे अंक जोडलाय, ज्याचा अर्थ होतो एवढे सोडून. I could say “all but one of the staff are at work today, as Phil isn’t here, but everyone else is!”

Tom
And, interestingly, the average flock of chickens were fine! Their egg production actually increased dramatically.

Tejali
Increase किंवा decrease सारख्या क्रियापदांची तीव्रता वाढवण्यासाठी dramaticallyचा वापर अनेकदा होतो. यात उत्पादकता वाढली हे सांगण्यासाठी कुठले शब्द वापरले आहेत? Average flock नंतर काय म्हटलंय ऐका.

Scientist
              
He compares the two flocks over six generations. The average flock just gets better and better and better. Egg production increases dramatically.

Tom
She says ‘it just gets better and better and better’.

Tejali
घडतंच राहतं, होतचं राहतं असं म्हणायचं असेल तर ‘Just gets’ वापरतात.

Tom

Right! She also repeats an adjective to show continuing improvement over time. The adjective, which is ‘better’ is stressed. ‘And’ is unstressed. Practice saying it with me.

better

and better

Better and better

Better and better and better

Tejali

Thanks! So, what can we humans learn from these chickens?

Tom
Good question – here is the last section of our clip. Which part of our lives does she suggest the experiment is similar to?

Scientist    
The super-flock of super-chickens, right, at the end of six generations all but three are dead. Because the other three have killed the rest. They've achieved their individual productivity by suppressing the productivity of the rest. And that's what we do at work.

Tom
So, she compares the behaviour of the chickens to our own human behaviour at work.

Tejali
बरोबर, ती म्हणाली, super-chickensनी एकमेकांना मारलं कारण त्यां सगळ्यांनाच सर्वोत्तम व्हायचं होतं.

Tom
That’s right! I think her point is that only some people can be the best, or can be bosses, or can be managers. Not everybody can be at the top of a hierarchy.

Tejali
Hierarchy
म्हणजे संस्थेतील विविध स्तर किंवा श्रेण्यांचा क्रम, पदानुक्रम. Hierarchical structures can be too competitive! Perhaps we need to work together more naturally.

Tom
Yeah, I agree. If everyone’s competing, we might create a dog-eat-dog environment.

Tejali
खूप जास्त स्पर्धेमुळे सगळ्यांनाच त्रास होतो आणि खूप नकारात्मकता निर्माण होते. अशा परिस्थितीचं वर्णन करताना a dog-eat-dog environment असं करतात. गळेकापू स्पर्धा, तणावपूर्ण परिस्थितीत ही म्हण चपखल बसते. Is there a more positive way we can describe hierarchies?

Tom
Yes there is, and it’s about chickens! When chickens eat, we say that they ‘peck’. We use the phrase ‘pecking order’ to describe hierarchies in a more informal, more positive way. Just like the average chickens in the experiment!

Tejali

Oh! So, are you at the top of the BBC pecking order?

Tom
No, I’m not! The editor’s at the top of the pecking order! And he won’t be very happy if our programme’s too long!

Tejali
That’s right! Thanks for listening everyone!

Tom
Bye! See you next time!

Tejali
Bye!

Language features

Listen to today’s clip in full here.
Source: The Joy of 9-to-5.

super-

Super’ is an adjective which means ‘superior’, or better. We can use as prefix to suggest a stronger, bigger or better version of something. It can be hyphenated or not, depending on the subject.

The super-chickens in the experiment were chosen due to their high levels of productivity.

Our new farming methods are very effective! We have a superabundance of food this year!

Posture relates to position. It describes someone’s position when they are standing or sitting.

- You should sit up straight at your desk! A bad posture can cause back pain.
Horizontal describes something which lies flat or level with the ground.  The opposite of horizontal is vertical. Upright is a synonym of vertical which. It’s commonly used when referring to posture.

all but [+ number]

We can say ‘all but’, plus a number, to mean ‘all except’. We often use the preposition ‘of’ to describe the group they come from.

All but two of the class did the homework. The pair who didn’t do it received detention.
 
 
We can also use all but without a preposition, although this is less common.

A: How many students did the homework?
B: All but two.

repeated adjectives

We often repeat adjectives to show a continuing trend or progression over time. These most often relate to size or quantity.

My granddaughter gets bigger and bigger every time I see her!

She’s eating more and more as she gets older!

This episode contains an example of an adjective being said three times. However, as a rule, we normally just say the adjective twice.

to just get

We use ‘just get’, plus an adjective, to mean ‘continue to become’.

As the day continues I just get more tired!

We often use this structure with repeated adjectives (see above).

I stopped watching the film; it just got worse and worse.

What can chickens teach us about productivity?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
रिकाम्या जागी योग्य शब्द लिहा.

تبریک می گوییم
Excellent! آفرین! نمره شما Bad luck! :
x / y

Join us for our next episode of Listen Here when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयावर बोलणार आहोत.

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واژه های تازه این جلسه

  • bird-brain
    मंदबुद्धी 

    flock
    कळप, समूह  

    to lay (eggs)
    अंडी देणे  

    to increase dramatically
    नाट्ट्यमयरित्या वाढ होणे

    hierarchy
    पदानुक्रम

    a dog-eat-dog environment
    गळेकापू स्पर्धा, तीव्र स्पर्धा असलेलं वातावरण  

    a pecking order
    उतरती  भाजणी, नैसर्गिक उतरता क्रम