جلسه 9

Can we teach the girls of the future with books of the past?
In today’s episode we will be discussing how men and women are portrayed in primary school textbooks around the world.

ንናይ ሎም ዘበን ኣዋልድ ብናይ ቀደም መጻሕፍቲ ክንምህረንዶ ንኽእል?
ኣብ ናይ ሎሚ መደብና ኣብ ዓለም ኣሰብኡትን ኣንስትን ኣብ ናይ መባእታዊ ትምህርቲ መጻሕፍቲ ብኸመይ ዓይነት ኣቀራርባ ከም ዝቐርቡ ክንዝቲ ኢና።

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    تمرین 1

تمرین 1

Can we teach the girls of the future with books of the past?

Look at the Session Vocabulary – make sure you know what these words and expressions mean:

  • to portray
  • various experts
  • hidden in plain sight

Quiz

What is the best-selling children’s book of all time? Is it:

     a. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
     b. Alice in Wonderland
     c. Harry Potter

Listen to the discussion about primary school textbooks and find out the answer.

Listen to find the answers. Then check them on the transcript below.

نشان دادن متن پنهان کردن متن

Local presenter
ሰላም፣ እንቋዕ ናብ መደብ English Together ብደሓን መጻእኩም። ኣብዚ መደብ’ዚ ብዛዕባ ዝተፈላለዩ ህልው ኵነታት ንኽንመያየጥ ዘኽእለኩም ቋንቋ ከነስንቐኩም ኢና።
ኣነ ተመስገን እየ፣ ምሳይ ዝርከቡ ድማ።

Sam
Hi, I’m Sam.

Kee
And I’m Kee. Welcome to the programme!

Local presenter
ኣብ ናይ ሎሚ መደብና ኣብ ዓለም ብዛዕባ ኣሰብኡትን ኣንስትን ኣብ ናይ መባእታዊ ትምህርቲ መጻሕፍቲ ብከመይ ዓይነት ኣቀራርባ ከም ዝቐርቡ ክንዝቲ ኢና። እዚ ኣርእስቲ’ዚ ቈልዑ ኣየኖት መጻሕፍቲ የንብቡ ከም ዘሎዉ ንኽንፍትሽ ጌሩና።
ስለዚ ናይ ሎሚ ሕቶ፡
እቲ ብብዝሒ ዝተሸጠ መጽሓፍ ቆልዑ ኣየናይ'ዩ ትብሉ?
ሀ) ‘ቻርሊ አንድ ዘ ቾክሌት ፋክቶሪ’
ለ) ‘ኣሊስ ኢን ዋንደርላንድ’
ሐ) ‘ሃሪ ፖተር’’

Sam
I personally loved Charlie and the Chocolate Factory! I still do!

Kee
Oh, come on, you just like it because it involves chocolate!

Local presenter
Ha! My favourite children’s book was ዓርኪ ተማሃራይ ቅድሚ ኣብ ምይይጥ ምእታውና፡ ነዚ ዝስዕብ ብማዕከን ቢ.ቢ.ሲ. ዝተዘርግሐ ጸብጻብ ንስማዕ። እቲ ጸብጻብ ዉጽኢት ናይቲ ኣብ ቀረባ እዋን ዝተኻየደ ምርምር’ዩ፣ እቲ ሕቶ ‘ተራ ናይ ጾታ ኣብ ዓለም ዝርከቡ መጻሕፍቲ ናይ መባእታዊ ትምህርቲ ከመይ ይመስል?’ ዝብል’ዩ። መልሱ ጸኒሕና ከነካፍለኩም ኢና።

News insert
Research suggests women are either shown in stereotype roles or seen as less valuable in primary school textbooks from all over the world. Professor Blumberg, from the University of Virginia, has been studying textbooks from around the world for over a decade, and says she has seen women systematically removed, or portrayed in roles where they serve men. Gender bias is extremely common in primary school learning books and can be found, in a noticeably similar form, on every continent – from Tanzania, to Haiti, to Pakistan, to Turkey, the list goes on and knows no geographical boundaries – various experts say. It is a problem ‘hidden in plain sight’.

Kee
Uhm, well, I’m trying to remember the textbooks that they used when I was in primary school…

Local presenter
Do you remember how they ‘portrayed’ ብኸመይ ኣገባብ ከም ዘቕረቡዎም men and women?

Kee
Not really... But I was helping my niece with her English homework last night, and I noticed that the women in her textbook were either mothers or sisters of the main character…

Sam
And the main character was male?

Kee
Yeah, and now that I think about it, there’s a lot of gender bias in the story.

Local presenter
‘Gender bias’ ጾታዊ ኣድልዎ ማለት’ዩ። What did your niece think?

Sam
Yeah, did she notice that there was a gender bias against the female characters?

Kee
Well, I hope she didn’t. I mean, she likes science and she likes climbing trees, I don’t want her to think that she can only be one or two things when she grows up.

Local presenter
Like a princess or a bride.

Kee
Yeah, exactly!

Sam
Yeah, these stereotypes can be very difficult for boys, as well.

Local presenter
I agree. ‘Stereotype’ መለሳ-ኣልቦ ማለት’ዩ።

Sam
The stereotype is that boys like sports, and dream of becoming an astronaut or a soldier. But what about the little boys who have different interests, different dreams?

Kee
Yes, they need positive role models, as well.

Local presenter
‘Role model’ ኣብነታዊ ተራ ዝጻወት ማለት’ዩ. Yes, all children need a lot of different role models, I think.

Sam
Absolutely! But, if they’re not seeing these role models in their school textbooks, where are they seeing them?

Kee
Maybe in the other books they’re reading?

Local presenter
ኣሃ! እስከ ናብቲ ኣቐዲምና ዘልዓልናዮ ሕቶ ንመለስ። ብብዝሒ ዝተሸጠት መጽሓፍ ቆልዑ ኣየነይቲ ኔይራ ትብሉ?
ሀ) ‘ቻርሊ አንድ ዘ ቾክሌት ፋክቶሪ’
ለ) ‘ኣሊስ ኢን ዋንደርላንድ’
ሐ) ‘ሃሪ ፖተር’’
እቲ መልሲ፡ ብመሰረት ናይ ብዙሓት ምንጭታት፡ ሐ)‘ሃሪ ፖተር’’ እያ። ‘ሃሪ ፖተር’’ ናብ 69 ዝተፈላለዩ ቋንቋታት ዝተተርጐመት መጽሓፍ ኰይና 450 ሚልዮን ዝኣኽሉ ቅዳሓት ኣብ ዓለም ተሸይጡ’ዩ።

Kee
I haven’t read them, but I know the main character is a boy…

Sam
Yeah, but there are many strong female characters! In the books the boys and girls have equal rights, I think.

Local presenter
‘Equal rights’ መሰል ማዕርነት ማለት’ዩ። Doesn’t the female character always solve the problems the male characters create?

Sam
Yes, she does! Just like me and you, Kee?

Kee
Oh, come one! Equal rights are for men, too, you know.

Local presenter
Sam’s just teasing you, Kee.
ቅድሚ ምስንባትና እቶም ሎሚ ዝዘተናሎም ቃላት ደጊምና’ስከ ንርኣዮም። ንሳቶም ከኣ ኣብ ሕብረተ-ሰብና ኣሰብኡትን ኣንስትን ምስ ዝጻወቱዎም ተራ ተኣሳሲሮም’ዮም ቀሪቦም። ‘Gender bias’, ቄናን ጾታ፣ ‘stereotype’, መለሳ-ኣልቦ፣ ‘role model’, ኣብነታዊ ተራ ዝጻወት ሰብ፣ ‘equal rights’, መሰል ማዕርነት እዮም።
ነዚ መደብ ብምክትታልኩም ነመስግነኩም፣ ኣብ ዚመጽእ ሰሙን ዝቐርብ ናይ English Together መደብና የራኽበና።

 

Meaning & Use 

a gender bias (noun phrase)

Gender is the state of being male or female. Another word for this is 'sex'.
 A) Mary and Luke just had their baby!
 B) Oh really? What's the gender?
 A) It's a little girl.

A bias is the 'a feeling or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way that is considered unfair'. We often use it with the prepositions towards or against.
 He wrote many history books but he showed a strong bias towards the Second World War. It was his favourite period.
 There is a bias against younger applicants for the job. They are loooking for a more experienced candidate.

A gender bias refers to unfair treatment of or behaviour towards one gender.
 Films used to show a strong gender bias towards men and against women, but that's changing now. Not only men can be superheroes!


a stereotype (noun)

A stereotype is 'an image or idea of a particular type of person or thing that is generally thought to be true but is often oversimplified'.
 People often think that in England everyone drinks tea at 4 o'clock. But it's a stereotype. I'm English, and I don't even like tea!

To stereotype is the verb, meaning 'to make oversimplified general statements about a particular type of person or thing'.
 It's easy to stereotype other countries when you don't know anything about them.


a role model (noun)

A role model is 'a person who is a positive example to others'.
 I really looked up to my big brother when I was a child. He was, and still is, a role model to me.


equal rights (noun phrase)

If you have a right to do something, it means that 'you are allowed to do it'. 
 I have a right to express my opinion freely, even if you don't agree with it.

Equal means 'the same'.
 Add equal amounts of water and flour, then mix everything together.

Equal rights is a noun phrase used to talk about 'the rights of all citizens to equal treatment under the law', and about people 'having the same status or opportunities'.
 Everyone should have equal rights, no matter their race, gender or religion. 

Can we teach the girls of the future with books of the past?

4 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
እቲ ቅኑዕ መልሲ ምረጹ።

تبریک می گوییم
Excellent! آفرین! نمره شما Bad luck! :
x / y

Over to you!

Do you remember any of the textbooks you used when you were in primary school? Did they have any stereotypes? Do you think you had positive role models growing up? Tell us on our Facebook group.

Join us for our next episode of English Together when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
ኣብቲ ጠቓሚ ቋንቋ እትመሃርሉን ናይ ምስማዕ ክለትኩም እትለማመድሉን ዝቕጽል መደብ English Together የራኽበና።

واژه های تازه این جلسه

  • gender bias
    ጾታዊ ኣድልዎ

    a stereotype
    መለሳ-ኣልቦነት

    a role model
    ኣብነታዊ ተራ

    equal rights
    ናይ መሰላት ማዕርነት

    to portray
    ቅብኣ / ምስሊ ምሃበ

    various experts
    ዝተፈላለዩ ክኢላታት

    hidden in plain sight
    ኣብ ቃልዕ ምሕባእ