Grammar Reference

Linking words of contrast

We use words and phrases like thoughalthough and even though to link two clauses together. We call them linking words of contrast. We use despite and in spite of in front of nouns and gerunds.

Marta broke her leg a year ago. Marta ran a marathon last weekend.

  • Despite breaking her leg a year ago, Marta ran a marathon last weekend.

Binh loves football. Binh has never been to a professional football match.

  • Though Binh loves football, he's never seen a professional match.

Where to use them

Althougheven though and though go in front of a clause. They can go at the beginning or middle of a sentence.

  • Although Endang worked hard, she failed her exams.
  • Endang failed her exams, although she worked hard.
  • Though it was cold, Katya only wore a t-shirt.
  • Katya only wore a t-shirt, though it was cold.

Despite and in spite of go in front of nouns or gerunds. They can also go at the beginning or middle of sentences.

  • Despite smoking 40 cigarettes a day, my grandfather lived to 100.
  • My grandfather lived to 100, despite smoking 100 cigarettes a day.
  • In spite of the terrible weather, they had a nice holiday.
  • They had a nice holiday, in spite of the terrible weather.