Session 3

Welcome to Session 3. We're going to look at using must and have to in the past and future. We’ll also bring you a top tip for informal speaking.

Sessions in this unit

Session 3 score

0 / 16

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    Activity 1
  • 0 / 8
    Activity 2
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    Activity 3
  • 0 / 0
    Activity 4
  • 0 / 4
    Activity 5

You've got to read this

In informal British English, we sometimes use have got to instead of have to.

  • We have to change the engine oil.
  • We’ve got to change the engine oil.

And in even more informal English we sometimes don't even say the have – so it becomes just got to. You might see this in text messages and on social media, for example:

  • Got to change the oil.

And there’s one more way to say this: gotta. It’s the most informal of all these forms.

  • Gotta change the engine oil.

Play the audio to hear Finn saying these example sentences out loud. Practise by reading them aloud with him.

Listen to the audio



Back to Aunt Jude. She’s just received some text messages. What do they say?

Session Grammar

  • If you must do something, it is necessary for you to do it, but this is often your opinion or a rule that you have made yourself.

    If you have to do something, it is necessary for you to do it. It’s a law, an obligation or a fact.

    If you don’t have to do something, it isn’t necessary to do it, but you can if you want.

    If you mustn’t do something, it means ‘don’t do it’. It is necessary not to do it.

Session Vocabulary