Session 2

Time to focus on the language, as we learn how to make sentences with the present perfect and just, already and yet. Let's practise the rules!

Sessions in this unit

Session 2 score

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    Activity 1
  • 0 / 5
    Activity 2
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    Activity 3

Activity 1

Just and already

The rules

In this session we're learning how to use just, already and yet with the present perfect tense. First let's look at the meanings of just and already. They both indicate that an action has happened, but there's an important difference:

Just = a very short time ago

Already = before now, or earlier than expected.

In the video in Session 1, Finn said:

  • I've just ordered a nice, big, vegetarian breakfast

(I ordered a nice, big, vegetarian breakfast a short time ago)

  • I've already signed up at the gym

(I've signed up at the gym. It happened earlier than I expected / you expected)


Now, let's remind ourselves how to make the present perfect. It's subject + have/has + past participle. With the present perfect, we normally use contractions like I've and we've.

So where do we put just or already? Usually they go between have/has and the past participle.

  • She’s just finished her second year at university.
  • I've already done that module.’ ‘Wow, that’s quick!’

But already can also go at the end of the sentence:

  • I've signed up at the gym already

Both just and already are usually used in positive sentences, not negative ones. However, we can occasionally use just in a negative sentence for emphasis or to correct someone.

  • What are you talking about? I haven’t just finished. I finished ages ago!

Already may also be used in questions sometimes, especially when the speaker is surprised by something.

  • Have we already studied this? I thought it was a new topic!  

To do

So, let's do a short quiz to see if you know which one to use – just or already.

Try the activity

'Just' or 'already'?

4 Questions

Choose the correct word to fill each gap

Congratulations you completed the Quiz
Excellent! Great job! Bad luck! You scored:
x / y


So, that's just and already. Now, it's time to look at yet in more detail.