Session 27

Today we examine the benefits that colonies of ants offer to the health of humans.
मुंग्यांचे फायदे काय असतात ते आज जाणून घेऊ.

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    Activity 1

Activity 1

How might ants save your life one day?

Today we examine the benefits that colonies of ants offer to the health of humans.
मुंग्यांमुळे मानवी आरोग्याला काय फायदे होतील हे जाणून घेऊ आज.

Before you listen/Pre-listening

Consider the following questions:

  • Where can you find ants in your country?
  • What do ants eat? How do they find their food?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

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Tejali
Hello! ऐकलंत का? Listen Here! मध्ये तुमचं स्वागत. मी तेजाली आणि माझ्यासोबत आहे जेम्स.

James
And I'm James! Welcome back everyone! Today we're going to be talking about something incredible that one type of ant in South America can do. How do you think those tiny insects could save your life ?

Tejali
मला नाही रे माहित. Ant म्हणजे मुंगी. पण मला एक माहितीये की काही प्रकारचे कीटक भविष्यात कदाचित मनुष्यासाठी अन्नाचे स्रोत बनतील. त्यामुळे आपला जीव वाचेल कदाचित. तुला असंच म्हणायचंय का?

James
No, not quite – what if I told you that leaf cutter ants can make medicine?

Tejali
Wow! Unbelievable – how can they do that?

James
Let's listen to the first part of today's clip about a fungus that the ants eat – what can these ants not do?

Tejali
Fungus म्हणजे बुरशी.  Agriculture  म्हणजे शेती आणि disease म्हणजे रोग.

So we’ve been studying leaf cuter ants from south and Central America. And these amazing ants farm a fungus, so they cut leaves and feed it to a fungus. They aren't able to eat leaves so instead they've evolved agriculture. They grow a fungus. So they have these big fungus gardens underground and they have big problems, because if their fungus garden gets a disease, the whole colony will die, so they've evolved another partnership with bacteria that produce antibiotics and they use those antibiotics as weed killers to kill off any other bad microbes that get into their fungus garden.

James
These ants can't eat leaves so, incredibly, they farm fungus!

Tejali
Fungus म्हणजे बुरशी, मी मगाशी सांगितलंच. या मुंग्या पानांवर बुरशी वाढवतात आणि मग ती बुरशी खातात. So not only do the ants make medicine, they are also farmers!

James
That's right! They're very hard-working! Did you hear why they create the medicine though? Listen again.

And they have big problems because if their fungus garden gets a disease, the whole colony will die, so they've evolved another partnership with bacteria that produce antibiotics and they use those antibiotics as weed killers to kill off any other bad microbes that get into their fungus gardens.

Tejali
The ants have bacteria, that produces antibiotics, bacteria, म्हणजे जीवाणू आणि antibiotics म्हणजे प्रतिजैवके, to prevent the fungus from getting a disease, disease म्हणजे रोग, and dying from bad microbes, microbes, म्हणजे सूक्ष्मजंतू.

James
That's really interesting – but there's also an interesting piece of language here! You and the speaker used 'that' to introduce a description. 'A bacteria that produces antibiotics!' We use 'that' because bacteria is a thing.

Tejali
'That' म्हणजे जे. इंग्रजीत thatचा वापर करून तुम्ही वस्तूचा उल्लेख किंवा त्यांचं वर्णन करू शकता. 'That' ऐवजी 'which' पण वापरू शकता. या मुंग्या जी प्रतिजैवकं तयार करतायत ती का महत्त्वाची आहेत ते ऐकू आता.   

We keep the ant colonies in the lab and we culture bacteria from them, it looks like they make antibiotics that we've never seen before. And we've found four strains that will kill fungi that are resistant to all other known anti-fungal compounds.

James
So the antibiotics that the ants make have never been seen before and that is how they might save our lives in the future, because the antibiotics that they produce can kill fungi that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Tejali
वा.. मस्त.. आता जरा ते नक्की कसं बोलायचं ते पण सांग.

James
I said 'that' /thət/ - this is the short form of 'that' /thæt/. We use this short form in fast connected speech. Listen and repeat after me.

that

that we've never seen

antibiotics that we've never seen.

Tejali
तर आपण वस्तूबद्दल सांगताना 'that' किंवा 'which' वापरतो. पण व्यक्ती किंवा जागेबद्दल सांगायचं असेल तर?

James
We can use 'where' to describe places and 'who' to describe people. Listen to these examples -

The scientists who discovered the antibiotics are from England.
The continent where the ants were found is South America.

Tejali
म्हणजे जर वस्तूंबद्दल बोलायचं असेल तर 'that'किंवा 'which वापरायचं, लोकांबद्दल सांगायचं असेल तर 'who, आणि ठिकाणाबद्दल सांगायचं असेल तर 'where. आलं लक्षात?
आता आजचे शब्द एकदा परत सांगते :
Ant म्हणजे मुंगी, fungus म्हणजे बुरशी, agriculture म्हणजे शेती, disease म्हणजे रोग, bacteria म्हणजे जीवाणू, antibiotics म्हणजे प्रतिजैवके, microbes म्हणजे सूक्ष्मजीव.  आज इथेच थांबू, पुन्हा भेटू Listen here च्या पुढच्या भागात.

Language features

Listen to today's clip in full here

Source: BBC PM

Defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses provide us with important information about a subject. We can make them using the pronouns 'that' and 'which'.

Ants are a kind of insect that eat leaves.
Ants are a kind of insect which eat leaves.

 

When we want to talk about a place, we can make a defining relative clause using where.

The continent where the ants are from is South America.

For people, we can use the pronoun who.

I will always respect the teacher who helped me through my exams.

You can learn more about relative clauses here > http://bit.ly/relative_clauses_info
classroom!

How might ants save your life one day?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
योग्य उत्तरं निवडा. 

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Join us for our next episode of Listen Here! when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयांवर बोलणार आहोत.

Session Vocabulary

  • ant
    मुंगी 

    fungus
    बुरशी 

    agriculture

    शेतकरी 

    disease
    रोग 

    bacteria
    जीवाणू 

    antibiotics
    प्रतिजैवके 

    microbes
    सूक्ष्मजंतू