Session 4

How does fat affect the brain? Today we listen to part of a scientific discussion and explain the ideas around this topic.
ስብ አዕምሯችን ላይ ምን ዓይነት ተፅዕኖን ያሳርፋል? ዛሬ ከሳይንሳዊ ውይይት ውስጥ የተወሰነውን እናዳምጥና ጉዳዩን እናብራራለን።

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    Activity 1

Activity 1

How does fat affect the brain?

How does fat affect the brain? Today we listen to part of a scientific discussion and explain the ideas around this topic.

ስብ አዕምሯችን ላይ ምን ዓይነት ተፅዕኖ ያሳርፋል? ዛሬ ከሳይንሳዊ ውይይት ውስጥ የተወሰነውን እናዳምጥና በጉዳዩ ዙርያ ያሉ ኃሳቦችን እናብራራለን።

Before you listen

Consider the following questions:

1) How does eating fat affect your body?
2) What is the purpose of the brain and what is it made from?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

Show transcript Hide transcript

ምህረተስላሴ
ጤና ይስጥልን፤ የእንግሊዘኛ ዜናዎችን ለመረዳት የሚያስችል ቋንቋ ወደምናስተምርበት Listen Here! – መሰናዶ እንኳን በደህና መጡ። ምህረተስላሴ እባላለሁ።

Tom
And I’m Tom! Hi again everyone. Today we’re listening to a discussion about the effects of fat on our brains.

ምህረተስላሴ
ዛሬ የምናዳምጠው ከቢቢሲ ብሪንጊንግ አፕ ብሪቴን መሰናዶ የተቀነጨበ ነው። የስነ ምግብ ባለሙያ በምግባችን diet’ ውስጥ ስብ ያለውን ጥቅም ይናገራሉ። እነዚህ ‘dietary fats’ ይባላሉ። ባለሙያዋ ስብ በጣም ጠቃሚ ስለመሆኑ አፅንኦት ሰጥተው የተናገሩት ለምን ይሆን? መቶኛውን ለማወቅ በአንክሮ ያዳምጡ።

Insert
I think almost everyone would do better if they were to realise how much impact things like sugar and refined carbohydrates can have. Now, the area of the diet most people absolutely don't understand is to do with dietary fats - the brain, it's 60% fat!

Tom
Wow! Sixty percent of the brain is fat!

ምህረተስላሴ
Yes! And she mentions that sugar and carbohydrates, ሀይል ሰጪ ምግቦች are bad too! She said that people would be better if they realised the impact these things can have.

Tom
But she doesn’t quite say ‘if they realised’. She says something slightly different. What is it? Let’s listen again.

Insert
I think almost everyone would do better if they were to realise how much impact things like sugar and refined carbohydrates can have.

Tom
So, she says ‘if they were to realise how much impact sugar and carbohydrates can have’.

ምህረተስላሴ
አዎ። በዚህ አረፍተ ነገር ውስጥ were መላ ምትን የሚያሳይ ያለፈ ጊዜ ቅርፅ ያለው ግስ ነው። ከእሱ ቀጥለን ‘to realise’ ን ጨምረንበታል።

Tom
She also stresses ‘if they were’, to stress that this is an unreal or imagined situation.

ምህረተስላሴ
So, if I were to suggest that we continue, would you agree?

Tom
Yes, I would! Let’s continue.

ምህረተስላሴ
አሁንም ያዳምጡ። ተናጋሪዋ በምንመገበው ምግብ ውስጥ ያለውን ስብ ዓይነት መቆጣጠር እንዳለብን ሲያብራሩ ምን ዓይነት ምክንያቶች አቀረቡ?

Insert
…the brain, it's 60% fat! It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets. So, if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly.

Tom
So, she says the brain is the organ that underlies our behaviour and it reflects that fats we eat in our diet.

ምህረተስላሴ
Organ የውስጥ አካል ማለት ነው። To underlie ማነሳሳት ወይም ምክንያት መሆን ማለት ነው። She also uses an interesting adjective to describe the brain. 

Tom
She does. Listen again for the two words that come before ‘organ’.

Insert
…the brain, it's 60% fat! It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets.

Tom
She said it’s a fat-rich organ.

ምህረተስላሴ
 ‘-rich’ ከተጨባጭ ስሞች ጋር የምንጠቀመው የኋላ ቅጥያ ነው። ከፍተኛ መጠን መኖሩን የሚያሳይ ቅፅል ነው። 

Tom
So I could say I eat a vitamin-rich lunch full of fruit and vegetables.

ምህረተስላሴ
ለማጠቃለል፤ ተናጋሪዋ ትክክለኛውን የስብ ዓይነቶች ማግኘት ካልቻልን አዕምሯችን ምን ያጋጥመዋል ይላሉ?

Insert
It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets. So, if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly.

ምህረተስላሴ
እዚህ ላይ ተናጋሪዋ ሌላ if’ ተጠቅመዋል፤ ሊሆን የሚችል ውጤትን ለመጠቆም ‘going to’ ከሚል ሐረግ ጋር ነው የተጠቀሙት።

Tom
That’s right! She says ‘if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly’.

ምህረተስላሴ
እናም there’s no way ይላሉ፤ ይህም የመሆን ዕድል የለውም ‘there’s no possibility’ ማለት ነው።

Tom
Also, she doesn’t say ‘our brains are going to be able to function properly’. She uses the contracted form, ‘gonna’. Say it with me to practise.

gonna
gonna be able
gonna be able to function

ምህረተስላሴ
Thanks, Tom! So, do you control the amount of fat you eat?

Tom
There’s no way I’m gonna be able to answer that question as we’re gonna run out of time!

ምህረተስላሴ
You’re right! በሚቀጥለው መሰናዶ እስከምንገናኝ ደህና ሁኑ! 

Tom
See you then everybody! Bye!

 

If I were to
'If I were' 
to is an example of a past tense being used to demonstrate hypothesis – unreal/imagined situations or ideas.
It is an exception to the rule that ‘was’ must follow ‘I’.

If I were to eat fast food every day, I would get fat.

We could also write this sentence clause using the base verb, eat, in the simple past.

If I ate fast food every day, I would get fat.

Both of the above sentences demonstrate the second conditional, where we use ‘if’ clauses to talk about hypothetical situations.

 

-rich
‘-rich’ is a suffix we can use with concrete nouns. When added with a hyphen, it creates a compound adjective.

There is a lot of oil in the desert. =
The desert is oil-rich.
I work in an oil-rich country.

We don’t use -rich with abstract nouns.

 

underlie
'To underlie' is to be the basis of something, or the reason why it happens. Its component words are ‘lie’ and ‘under’, which implies a foundation upon which something is built.

Chemical reactions in our brain underlie all of our behaviour.

We can also use the adjective form, underlying.

I think one of the underlying reasons why your son doesn’t like reading is that he has poor eyesight!

How does fat affect the brain?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
ትክክለኛውን መልስ ይምረጡ

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Join us for our next episode of Listen Here! when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
ጠቃሚ የቋንቋ መሰረታዊያን ለመማር እና የማዳመጥ ክህሎትዎን በመለማመድ ለማዳበር በቀጣዩ ሊስን ሂር ክፍላችን ይጠብቁን።

Session Vocabulary

  • dietary fat
    ምግብ ውስጥ ያለ ስብ

    carbohydrate
    ካርቦሃይድሬት

    to underlie
    መነሻ ምክንያት መሆን

    composition
    መዋቅር

    organ
    የሰውነት የውስጥ ክፍል

    reflect
    ማንፀባረቅ

    no way
    የመሆን ዕድል የሌለው