Session 2

Today we examine one scientist’s analysis of teenagers, homework and the brain. Can she explain why teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?
በዛሬው ዝግጅታችን ታዳጊ ወጣቶችን፣ የቤት ስራን እና አዕምሮን በተመለከተ አንድ ተመራማሪት ያቀረቡትን ትንታኔ እናያለን። ተመራማሪዋ ታዳጊዎች የቤት ስራ ማስረከቢያ ጊዜ እስከሚደርስበት የመጨረሻ ደቂቃ ድረስ ለምን ሳይሰሩ እንደሚቆዩ ማብራራት ይችሉ ይሆን?

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    Activity 1

Activity 1

Why do teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?

Today we examine one scientist’s analysis of teenagers, homework and the brain.
በዛሬው ዝግጅታችን ታዳጊ ወጣቶችን፣ የቤት ስራን እና አዕምሮን በተመለከተ አንድ ሳይንቲስት ያቀረቡትን ትንታኔ እናያለን።

Before you listen

1) How many reasons can you think of that explain why many teenagers leave their homework until the last minute?

2) Check the Session Vocabulary. Make sure you understand what these pieces of vocabulary mean.

 - Pre-frontal cortex

-  Neuroscientist

3) Based on the vocabulary in Question 2, what kinds of reasons do you think we will learn about today?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

Show transcript Hide transcript

ምህረተስላሴ
ጤና ይስጥልን፤ የእንግሊዝኛ ዜናዎችን ለመረዳት የሚያስችል ቋንቋ ወደምናስተምርበት ‘ሊስን ሂር’ መሰናዶ እንኳን በደህና መጡ። ምህረተስላሴ እባላለሁ።

Tom
And I'm Tom. Hi everyone!  Today we're talking about teenagers, homework and the brain.

ምህረተስላሴ
Did you do your homework when you were a teenager?

Tom
Yeah I did, but, often at the last minute, which means as late as possible!

ምህረተስላሴ
በዛሬው መሰናዶ፤ ታዳጊዎች ለምን የቤት ስራቸውን በጊዜ እንደማይሰሩ የአዕምሮ ሳይንስ መልስ ይሰጠን እንደሆን እንመለከታለን።

Tom
And today's guest is a neuroscientist, so get ready for some difficult vocabulary!

ምህረተስላሴ
'A neuroscientist' የስነ አዕምሮ ተመራማሪ ማለት ነው። ዛሬ የምናዳምጠው ከቢቢሲ ሬዲዮ ፎር፤ The Life Scientific መርኃ ግብር የተቀነጨበ ንግግር ነው። የስነ አዕምሮ ተመራማሪ ሳራ-ጄይን ብላክሞር ስለታዳጊዎች አዕምሮ ማብራሪያ እየሰጡ ነው። በተለይም 'pre-frontal cortex' ስለሚባለው የአዕምሮ ክፍል ይናገራሉ። ይህንን የአዕምሮ ክፍል የምናገኘው የት ነው? የሚፈፅማቸው ተግባራት tasks ምንድን ናቸው?

Insert 1
The pre-frontal cortex is the part of the brain right at the front, just behind the forehead. And it's involved in a whole range of very high-level cognitive tasks such as decision-making and planning.   

Tom
So, unsurprisingly, the pre-frontal cortex is at the front of the brain, just behind the forehead.

ምህረተስላሴ
ትክክል። Forehead ግንባር ማለት ነው። ‘fore’ ን ከ ‘e’ ጋር እንደ ቅድመ ቅጥያ የምንጠቀመው የመጀመሪያ ወይም ከፊት እንደሆነ ለማሳየት ነው። Forehead የጭንቅላትን የፊት ክፍል ይገልፃል። ሌላኛው ምሳሌ ደግሞ forethought ሲሆን ቀድሞ ማሰብን ያመለክታል።

Tom
Yeah. If we give something some forethought, it means we think first, or plan.

ምህረተስላሴ
እናም ይህ የአዕምሮ ክፍል ከሚያከናውናቸው ተግባሮች አንዱ ማቀድ ነው። decision-making ውሳኔ ማሳለፍ ሌላው ስራው ነው። ሳይንቲስቷ እነዚህን ውሳኔዎች ለመግለፅ high-level የሚለውን ሐረግ ከተጠቀሙ በኋላ የተገለገሉበት ቅፅል ምንድን ነው?

Insert
The pre-frontal cortex is the part of the brain right at the front, just behind the forehead. And it's involved in a whole range of very high-level cognitive tasks such as decision-making and planning.

Tom
She used the word cognitive.

ምህረተስላሴ
'Cognitive' ከአስተሳሰብ ጋር የተያያዘ ትርጉም ያለው ቅጽል ሲሆን፤ Cognitive tasks በአዕምሮ የሚከወኑ ተግባሮችን ይገልጻል።

Tom
And she also used the expression a whole range of cognitive tasks.

ምህረተስላሴ
'A whole range of' የተባለውን ሐረግ ከስም ጋር ስንጠቀመው በመጠንና በአይነት ሰፊ የሆነን ነገር ይገልፅልናል።

Tom
Note that the presenter says 'tasks'. I say 'tasks', and this is because of our different British accents. Both are fine, so use whichever one's easiest for you.

ምህረተስላሴ
የስነ አዕምሮ ተመራማሪዋ በጉርምስና ዘመን adolescent years ስላለው የአዕምሮ ዕድገት ነው የሚያወሩት። expectations የሚጠበቁ ነገሮች እና development እድገት በተባሉት ቃላት መካከል ያለው ግንኙነት ምንድን ነው?

Insert
We know that this region is undergoing very, very large amounts of development during the adolescent years. And so in terms of  the expectations that we place on teenagers, to, for example, plan their homework, might be too much given that we know that the region of the brain that's critically involved in planning is not developed yet.

Tom
Aha! So, in the last sentence she mentions that the area of the brain involved in planning isn't developed yet!

ምህረተስላሴ
That's right! ሳይንቲስቷ ከታዳጊዎች ብዙ እንጠብቃለን የሚለውን ሀሳባቸውን ለማጠናከር የተጠቀሙት አባባል ምንድን ነው? 'might be too much'. ከሚለው ሀረግ በኋላ ደግመው ያዳምጡ።

Insert
…the expectations that we place on teenagers, to, for example, plan their homework, might be too much, given that we know that the region of the brain that’s critically involved in planning is not developed yet.

Tom
Did you catch it? She said given that.

ምህረተስላሴ
'Given that' ሃቁን ከግምት ውስጥ ስናስገባ ማለት ነው።

Tom
So, given that we know that teenagers' brains are still developing, is it fair to expect them to be as good at planning as adults are? What do you think?

ምህረተስላሴ
Well, Tom, given that we're out of time, I don't think I can answer that question! አስተያየትዎን ለምን በአድራሻችን አያጋሩንም? አብረውን ስለቆዩ እናመሰግናለን።

Tom
Thanks for joining us everyone! See you next time for more Listen Here! Goodbye!

Language features

fore

Fore can be used in many ways and relates to being at the front of something, or first. 

The fastest horse was at the fore throughout the race!

It is more often used as a prefix to modify other words.

forehead – the front of your head.
forename – 
your first name

We often use the expression ‘give [something] some forethought’. This means to consider something happening in the future.

different accents

There are a lot of different accents in British English. In this episode different speakers pronounce the words ‘tasks’ differently. 

When pronouncing words like ‘tasks’, ‘grass’ and ‘castle’, Tom uses/æ/. This is a short vowel sound.
The presenter in the audio clip uses /a:/ - this is a longer vowel sound. You can hear this sound in words like ‘car’ and ‘far’. 

Both of these forms are fine to use. Differences in regional accents are widely tolerated within the UK.

cognition

Cognition is a noun which refers to thinking and mental processes. It is a word used in scientific or formal contexts.

Drinking alcohol can lead to impaired cognition.

Cognitive is the adjective form.

The ability to plan is a cognitive function. It comes from the human brain.

adolescence

Adolescence is the period of life during which one’s body changes from a child’s body to that of an adult.

Our son spent a lot of time in his room during his adolescence.

Adolescent can be used as both an adjective and a countable noun related to this.

The adolescent brain is always developing. (adjective).
I was a very difficult adolescent; I was very moody.(noun – person).

Why do teenagers leave their homework to the last minute?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
ትክክለኛውን መልስ ይመረጡ

Congratulations you completed the Quiz
Excellent! Great job! Bad luck! You scored:
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Join us for our next episode of Listen Here! when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
ተጨማሪ ጠቃሚ የቋንቋ መሰረታዊያን ለመማር እና የማዳመጥ ክህሎትዎን በመለማመድ ለማዳበር በቀጣዩ ሊስን ሂር መሰናዷችን ይጠብቁን።

Session Vocabulary

  • the last minute
    የመጨረሻው ደቂቃ

    neuroscientist
    የስነ አዕምሮ ተመራማሪ

    pre-frontal cortext
    የአዕምሮ ክፍል ስያሜ

    forehead
    ግንባር

    fore
    ከፊት

    forethought
    ቅድመ ኃሳብ

    cognitive
    አስተሳሰባዊ

    adolescent
    ጎረምሳ ወይም ኮረዳ

    expectations
    የሚጠበቁ ነገሮች

    development
    ዕድገት