Session 4

How does fat affect the brain? Today we listen to part of a scientific discussion and explain the ideas around this topic.
Coomni akkamitti sammuurratti dhiibbaa uumaa? Har’a kutaa marii saayinsaawaa caqasuudhaan yaadawwan waa’ee mataduree kanaa ibsina.

Sessions in this unit

Session 4 score

0 / 3

  • 0 / 3
    Activity 1

Activity 1

How does fat affect the brain?

How does fat affect the brain? Today we listen to part of a scientific discussion and explain the ideas around this topic.
Coomni akkamitti sammuurratti dhiibbaa uumaa? Har’a kutaa marii saayinsaawaa caqasuudhaan yaadawwan waa’ee mataduree kanaa ibsina.

Before you listen

Consider the following questions:

1) How does eating fat affect your body?
2) What is the purpose of the brain and what is it made from?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

Show transcript Hide transcript

Caalii
Yooyyaa! Odeessaalee Afaan Inglizii sirri ta’an akka hubattuuf bakka itti si barsiifnutti caqasuuf baga ngaan dhufte! An Caaliidha.

Tom
And I’m Tom! Hi again everyone. Today we’re listening to a discussion about the effects of fat on our brains.

Caalii
Kiliippiin har’aa BBC’s Bringing up Britain irraa kan argame. Ogeettiin sirna nyaata, waa’ee barbaachisummaa coomawwan soorata keenya keesssaa ykn ‘dietary fats’ jedhamanii mariisisaa jirti. Maaliif coomawwan haalaan barbaachisoo jette irratti xiyyeeffatte? Dhuguma baay’ee barbaachiisodha? Hanga barbaachisummaasaa dhibbantaadhaan baruuf caqasi.

Insert

I think almost everyone would do better if they were to realise how much impact things like sugar and refined carbohydrates can have. Now, the area of the diet most people absolutely don't understand is to do with dietary fats - the brain, it's 60% fat!

Tom
Wow! Sixty percent of the brain is fat!

Caalii
Yes! And she mentions that sugar and carbohydrates, kaarbohaydreetoonni, are bad too! She said that people would be better if they realised the impact these things can have.

Tom
But she doesn’t quite say ‘if they realised’. She says something slightly different. What is it? Let’s listen again.

Insert
I think almost everyone would do better if they were to realise how much impact things like sugar and refined carbohydrates can have.

Tom
So, she says ‘if they were to realise how much impact sugar and carbohydrates can have’.

Caalii
Eeyyee! Hima kana keessatti ‘were’, gocha hennaa darbee kan wanti tokko akka ta’uu tilmaamuudha. Sana booda ‘to realise’ itti daballa.

Tom
She also stresses ‘if they were’, to stress that this is an unreal or imagined situation.

Caalii
So, if I were to suggest that we continue, would you agree?

Tom
Yes, I would! Let’s continue.

Caalii
Itti fufii caqasi. Dubbattuun kun, soorata coomaa nyaannu to’achuu akka qabnu ibsuuf sababa maali kennitee?

Insert
…the brain, it's 60% fat! It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets. So, if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly.

Tom
So, she says the brain is the organ that underlies our behaviour and it reflects that fats we eat in our diet.

Caalii
‘Organ’ jechuun qaama ykn akaakuu qaama keenya kan keessoo, fakkeenyaaf: onne somba,Tiruu, Kalee, Sammuu, qaama hormaataafi… KKF, jechuudha. ‘To underlie’ jechuun bu’ura sababa waan tokkoo. She also uses an interesting adjective to describe the brain.

Tom
She does. Listen again for the two words that come before ‘organ’.

Insert
…the brain, it's 60% fat! It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets.

Tom
She said it’s a fat-rich organ.

Caalii
‘-rich’ duub-galaa yoo ta’u maqaalee qabatamoo wajjin fayyadamna. Kunis bifa maq-ibsaa wantitokko qabiiyyee olaanaa qubaachuu kan ibsuudha.

Tom
So I could say I eat a vitamin-rich lunch full of fruit and vegetables.

Caalii
Or I could come from a gold-rich country!  Walumaa galatti, gosa coomaa sirrii ta’e yoo hinyaatiin, wanti dubbataan eeree sammuu keenyarratti ni raawwata.

Insert
It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets. So, if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly.

Caalii
Asitti, dubbatichi ciroo biroo kan ta’e ‘if’ fayyadama – yeroo kanatti ‘going to’ waliin waan tarii ta’uu danda’u eera.

Tom
That’s right! She says ‘if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly’.

Caalii
Akkasuma ‘there’s no way’ jette, kana jechuunis ‘there’s no possibility’ jechuudha.

Tom
Also, she doesn’t say ‘our brains are going to be able to function properly’. She uses the contracted form, ‘gonna’. Say it with me to practise.

gonna
gonna be able
gonna be able to function

Caalii
Thanks, Tom! So, do you control the amount of fat you eat?

Tom
There’s no way I’m gonna be able to answer that question as we’re gonna run out of time!

Caalii
You’re right! Hundi keessanuu, yeroo ittaanu walitti deebinaa, nagaatti!.

Tom
See you then everybody! Bye!

Language features

If I were to

If I were to is an example of a past tense being used to demonstrate hypothesis – unreal/imagined situations or ideas. It is an exception to the rule that ‘was’ must follow ‘I’.

If I were to eat fast food every day, I would get fat.

We could also write this sentence clause using the base verb, eat, in the simple past.

If I ate fast food every day, I would get fat.

Both of the above sentences demonstrate the second conditional, where we use an ‘if’ clauses to talk about a hypothetical situation.

-rich

‘-rich’ is a suffix we can use with concrete nouns. When added with a hyphen, it creates a compound adjective.

There is a lot of oil in the desert. =
The desert is oil-rich.
I work in an oil-rich country.

We don’t use -rich with abstract nouns.

underlie

To underlie is to be the basis of something, or the reason why it happens. Its component words are ‘lie’ and ‘under’, which implies a foundation upon which something is built.

Chemical reactions in our brain underlie all of our behaviour.

We can also use the adjective form, underlying.

I think one of the underlying reasons why your son doesn’t like reading is that he has poor eyesight!

How does fat affect the brain?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
Deebii sirrii ta’e fili.

Congratulations you completed the Quiz
Excellent! Great job! Bad luck! You scored:
x / y

Do you have a fat-rich diet? Tell us on our Facebook group.

Join us for our next episode of Listen Here! when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Sagantaa Listen Here kan qooqa daran faayida-qabeessa ta’an keessatti barannuufi daandeettiiwwan dhageettiikee ittiin shaakaltutti yeroo itaanu walitti deebina.

Session Vocabulary

  • dietary fat
    soorata coomaa

    carbohydrate
    kaarboohaydireetii

    to underlie
    bu’ura sababa waan tokkoo

    composition
    walitti dhufee ykn makamee

    organ
    kutaa qaama keessaa

    reflect
    ibsuu/mul’isuu

    no way
    kan hindanda’amne