课程 4

How does fat affect the brain? Today we listen to part of a scientific discussion and explain the ideas around this topic.
मेदाचा मेंदूवर काय परिणाम होतो? याबद्दलची शास्त्रीय माहिती आजच्या भागात ऐकू.

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    练习题 1

练习题 1

How does fat affect the brain?

How does fat affect the brain? Today we listen to part of a scientific discussion and explain the ideas around this topic.
मेदाचा मेंदूवर काय परिणाम होतो? याबद्दलची शास्त्रीय माहिती आजच्या भागात ऐकू.

Before you listen/Pre-listening

Before you listen/Pre-listening
Consider the following questions:
1) How does eating fat affect your body?
2) What is the purpose of the brain and what is it made from?

Listen to the audio and take the quiz.

显示文字稿 收起文字稿

Tejali
Hello! ऐकलंत का? Listen Here! मध्ये तुमचं स्वागत. बीबीसीच्या स्टोरीज तर तुम्ही नेहमी ऐकता, पण या मालिकेत आपण या स्टोरीजमधली भाषा, त्या स्टोरीजमधले शब्द आपण जाणून घेतो. मी तेजाली ...

Tom
And I’m Tom! Hi again everyone. Today we’re listening to a discussion about the effects of fat on our brains.

Tejali
आजची क्लिप आहे BBCच्या Bringing up Britainमधली. आहारतज्ज्ञ आपल्या आहारातील मेदाचं महत्त्व सांगत आहेत. आहारातील मेद म्हणजे dietary fats .Diet म्हणजे आहार आणि fats म्हणजे मेद. Dietary fatsवर ती का एवढा भर देतीये? Fats आपल्या आहारात एवढे महत्त्वाचे का आहेत? ऐका आणि यात टक्केवारी किती सांगितली आहे यावर लक्ष द्या.

Presenter
I think almost everyone would do better if they were to realise how much impact things like sugar and refined carbohydrates can have. Now, the area of the diet most people absolutely don't understand is to do with dietary fats - the brain, it's 60% fat!

Tom
Wow! Sixty percent of the brain is fat!

Tejali
Yes! And she mentions that sugar and carbohydrates are bad too!Carbohydrates म्हणजे कर्बोदकं.  She said that people would do better if they realised the impact these things can have.

Tom
But she doesn’t quite say ‘if they realised’. She says something slightly different. What is it? Let’s listen again.

Presenter
I think almost everyone would do better if they were to realise how much impact things like sugar and refined carbohydrates can have.

Tom
So, she says ‘if they were to realise how much impact sugar and carbohydrates can have’.

Tejali
Ah yes! या वाक्यात ‘were’ हा भूतकाळ आहे. इथे एक गोष्ट गृहीत धरली आहे, यासाठी were नंतर ‘to realise’ वापरलं.

Tom
She also stresses ‘if they were’, to stress that this is an unreal or imagined situation.

Tejali
So, if I were to suggest that we continue, would you agree?

Tom
Yes, I would! Let’s continue.

Tejali
लक्ष द्या... आहारातील मेद म्हणजे fats च्या प्रमाणावर नियंत्रण का ठेवायला हवं यासाठी तिने काय कारणं सांगितली आहेत?   

Presenter
…the brain, it's 60% fat! It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets. So, if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly.

Tom
So, she says the brain is the organ that underlies our behaviour and it reflects that fats we eat in our diet.

Tejali
Organ
म्हणजे अवयव, शरीराच्या आतले अवयव. To underlie म्हणजे खाली असलेला, ठरवणारा. आपला मेंदू आपल्या वर्तणूकीची पायाभरणी करतो.  She also uses an interesting adjective to describe the brain.

Tom
She does. Listen again for the two words that come before ‘organ’.

Presenter
…the brain, it's 60% fat! It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets.

Tom
She said it’s a fat-rich organ.

Tejali
त्यात मेदाचं प्रमाण खूप जास्त असतं म्हणून त्याला म्हटलंयfat-rich , ‘-rich’ म्हणजे श्रीमंत, भरपूर प्रमाण असलेला, समृद्ध.

Tom
So I could eat a vitamin-rich lunch of fruit and vegetables.

Tejali
म्हणजे शेवटी ती काय म्हणतीये? आपण योग्य मेदयुक्त पदार्थ खाल्ले नाहीत तर त्याचे मेंदूवर काय परिणाम होतील?

Presenter
…the brain, it's 60% fat! It's the fat-rich organ, you know, that underlies all our behaviour, and its composition reflects the fats in our diets. So, if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly.

Tejali
इथे परत ‘if’ वापरलं आहे. कसं? ‘Going to’ बरोबर .. शक्यता सांगण्यासाठी.

Tom
That’s right! She says ‘and if we don't get those right, there's no way that our brains are going to be able to function properly’.

Tejali
आणि ती म्हणाली ‘there’s no way’, म्हणजे ‘there’s no possibility’, काहीच शक्यता नाही.

Tom
Also, she doesn’t say ‘our brains are going to be able to function properly’. She uses the contracted form, ‘gonna’. Say it with me to practise.

gonna
gonna be able
gonna be able to function

Tejali
Thanks, Tom! So, do you control the amount of fat you eat?

Tom
There’s no way I’m ‘gonna’ be able to answer that question as we’re ‘gonna’ run out of time!

Tejali
You’re right! Bye everyone, see you again next time!

Tom
See you then everybody! Bye!

Tejali
Bye!

Language features

Listen to today’s clip in full here.

Source: Bringing up Britain

If I were to
If I were to
is an example of a past tense being used to demonstrate hypothesis – unreal/imagined situations or ideas.
It is an exception to the rule that ‘was’ must follow ‘I’.

If I were to eat fast food every day, I would get fat.

We could also write this sentence clause using the base verb, eat, in the simple past.

If I ate fast food every day, I would get fat.

Both of the above sentences demonstrate the second conditional, where we use ‘if’ clauses to talk about hypothetical situations.

-rich
‘-rich’ is a suffix we can use with concrete nouns. When added with a hyphen, it creates a compound adjective.

There is a lot of oil in the desert. =
The desert is oil-rich.
I work in an oil-rich country.

We don’t use -rich with abstract nouns. 

underlie
To underlie
is to be the basis of something, or the reason why it happens. It’s component words are ‘lie’ and ‘under’, which implies a foundation upon which something is built.

Chemical reactions in our brain underlie all of our behaviour.

We can also use the adjective form, underlying.

I think one of the underlying reasons why your son doesn’t like reading is that he has poor eyesight! 

How does fat affect the brain?

3 Questions

Choose the correct answer.
योग्य उत्तर निवडा.

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Join us for our next episode of Listen Here when we will learn more useful language and practise your listening skills.
Listen Hereचे पुढचा भाग नक्की बघा. तुम्ही आणखी उपयुक्त शब्द शिकाल आणि तुमच्या श्रवण कौशल्याचा सरावही होईल अशा विषयावर बोलणार आहोत.

本课词汇

  • dietary fat
    आहारातील मेद

    carbohydrate
    कर्बोदके

    to underlie
    पायाभरणी, मुलभूत

    composition
    रचना

    organ
    अवयव, शरीराच्या आतला भाग 

    reflect
    परावर्तीत करणे

    no way

    शक्यता नाही.