These consonants are similar to their English equivalents:
  • f, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, w, y

These are not unfamiliar sounds to speakers of English:
  • b – like p in spare
  • d – like t in stand
  • g – like g in girl

These consonant sounds are more difficult:
    c – like ts in tents
    ch – like ch in chair, but with the mouth in a round shape and the tongue further back
    h – like h in him but with a bit more fiction in the throat (not as much as in Scottish loch)
    j – like j in joke but with the tongue nearer the teeth
    q – like ch in chair, but with the tongue further forward
    r – like r in rough, but with the tongue curled upwards
    sh – like sh in ship
    x – between s and sh, though there is no sound in English which is the same as the sound x in Chinese. Place the front of your tongue behind the lower front teeth, then let the air pass through.
    z – like ds in lads
    zh – like j in jump, but with the tongue further back

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