Transcript of media clip Giota Chun Cinn Lesson 16: To Have To ...

There are several ways in Irish to put forward the idea of ‘to have to do something’ or ‘to need to do something’. I think it’s important that we start off with something which is very simple, especially for learners.

The verb to be and the preposition ar, for example:
Tá orm dul abhaile ‘I have to go home’
Níl orm dul abhaile ‘I don’t have to go home’
Bhí orm dul ag obair ‘I had to go to work’
Ní raibh orm dul ag obair inniu ‘I didn’t have to go to work today’
An raibh ort dul ag obair inniu? ‘Did you have to go to work today?’
Beidh orm dul abhaile anois ‘I will have to go home now’
Ní bheidh orm dul ag obair amárach ‘I don’t have to go to work tomorrow’

This also applies to the other parts of the preposition arorm (on me), ort (on you), air (on him), uirthi (on her), orainn (on us), oraibh (on you plural), orthu (on them).
Examples:
Tá orm ‘I have to’
Níl orm ‘I don’t have to’
An bhfuil orm? ‘Do I have to?’
Bhí orm ‘I had to’
Ní raibh orm ‘I didn’t have to’
An raibh ort? ‘Did you have to?’
Beidh orm ‘I will have to’
Ní bheidh orm ‘I won’t have to’
An mbeidh orm? ‘Will I have to?’

The second way to express ‘to have to’ do something is to use the verb ‘to be’ and the preposition ag.
Examples:
Tá agam le dul abhaile ‘I have to go home’
Tá agam le litir a scríobh ‘I have to write a letter’
Níl agam le dul abhaile ‘I don’t have to go home’
Níl agam le litir a scríobh ‘I don’t have to write a letter’
Bhí agam le dul abhaile ‘I had to go home’
Beidh orm le dul ag obair ‘I will have to go to work’
Beidh orm le dul abhaile ‘I will have to go home’

The third way to express ‘to have to’ do something is to use the verb ‘to be’ with the
preposition le.
Examples:
Tá smudáil le déanamh ‘There is ironing to be done’
Tá sothaí le ní ‘There are dishes to be washed’
Tá cruinniú le socrú ‘There is a meeting to organise’
Tá an teach le glanadh ‘The house needs tidying’

Those first 3 ways used the verb ‘to be’ plus a preposition. The fourth way to express ‘to have to’ is ní mór dom (mór meaning big). This would be used in official language.
Examples:
Ní mór duit an fhoirm a chur ar ais roimh an Aoine seo chugainn.
‘You must send the form back before next Friday’
Ní mór dom dul abhaile anois. ‘I have to go home now’

A fifth way is to use the verb tar (to come) plus the preposition ar
Examples:
Déanfaidh mé é, má thig orm a dhéanamh. ‘I will do it if I have to’
Seasfaidh sé an fód nuair a thagann air ‘He will stand his ground when he has to’
Sheas sé an fód nuair a tháinig air ‘He stood his ground when he had to’
Tháinig orm sin a dhéanamh ‘I had to do that’

Another way is to use caithfidh mé which is very common in speech
Examples:
Caithfidh mé dul abhaile ‘I have to go home’
Caithfidh me dul ag obair ‘I have to go to work’
Caithfidh mé dul a luí ‘I have to go to bed’
Caithfidh mé a rá go bhfuil an aimsir galánta ‘I have to say that the weather is lovely’

Another way is to use the noun éigean which is to do with compulsion. This is usually used in the past tense.
Examples:
B’éigean dom dul abhaile ‘I had to go home’
B’éigean dom na soithí a ní ‘I had to do the dishes’
B’éigean dom cupán tae a dhéanamh ‘I had to make a cup of tea’

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