The Six Wives of Henry VIII 1 January 1970
The BBC began the 1970s with the colour costume drama The Six Wives of Henry VIII. The first episode, broadcast on 1 January, was devoted to Catherine of Aragon, played by Annette Crosbie. Subsequent weeks starred Dorothy Tutin as Anne Boleyn; Anne Stallybrass as Jane Seymour; Elvi Hale as Anne of Cleves; Angela Pleasence as Catherine Howard and Rosalie Crutchley as Catherine Parr.
Keith Michell's performance as Henry remains the definitive television portrayal of the Tudor king. He revealed Henry to be a more complex character than had been depicted before, cultured and refined as well as tyrannical and lusty. Michell had to age over the six programmes from the athletic young prince to the obese 56 year old. He was recognised for his efforts with an Emmy Award after the programme transmitted in the US.
The authentic appearance of the court costumes was achieved by the ingenuity of designer John Bloomfield, who used painted cheap fabrics, glass and household washers to achieve the sumptuous period effect. Such was the interest in the programme that the costumes went on tour. The international success of Henry VIII led to the making of Elizabeth R, and established the BBC's position as the pre-eminent producer of period drama.
The Brains Trust 1 January 1941
The Brains Trust - the panel of five experts who answered questions sent in by listeners - began on 1 January 1941. The series was first called Any Questions, but it was renamed The Brains Trust the following year. The panel included Professor Julian Huxley, C.E.M. Joad, and Commander A.B. Campbell. Their individual approaches and sometimes argumentative style ensured The Brains Trust became very popular, at its peak attracting nearly a third of all adult listeners, and 4400 letters a week.
The Brains Trust was introduced to provide more serious programmes on the Forces radio service. It was adapted by producer Howard Thomas from the American programme Information Please. Thomas coined the term question master to describe the role of Donald McCullough. The panel were not briefed on the questions, and their answers gave rise to catchphrases, such as Joad's qualifying "it all depends what you mean by...", and Campbell's "When I was in Patagonia..." Questions ranged from the trivial to the serious, for example "do we think this world is worthwhile?" or "what is the difference between fresh air and a draught?".
The Brains Trust continued until 1949 with many other eminent brains, before transferring to television in 1950. The term Brains Trust became common, used to describe any gathering of experts.
The Archers 1 January 1951
The Archers, the longest running daily serial in the world, began its national run on 1 January 1951. It started life the previous year on the Midlands Home Service, specifically intended for the farming community, but it soon became clear there was a large general audience for the "serial play of country life", as the Radio Times described it on its national launch.
According to creator Godfrey Baseley, the idea for The Archers was hatched at a meeting with farmers in Birmingham. One farmer said "what we really want is a farming Dick Barton!" The writers of Dick Barton were brought in to write the scripts, but there was also an insistence that real life rural affairs and the latest developments in farming were depicted in the programme. In one major event in the first year Dan Archer retired his working horses, Boxer and Blossom - reflecting the increased mechanisation of agriculture.
The Archers continues to reflect changes in country life, though it is no longer overtly educational. Its presence on the airwaves for 60 years makes it in many ways the kingpin of BBC Radio output, and it is a genuine national institution. The Archers theme tune, Barwick Green, is instantly recognisable, and it remains the most popular non-news programme on Radio 4.
In 1962 the first producer of The Archers, Godfrey Baseley, spoke to Brian Vaughton about the origins of the serial. He recalled a conference, chaired by a senior figure in the BBC's management, a Mr. H.J. Dunkerley, who allowed a pilot of the programme to go ahead.
BBC Arabic Service, first foreign language service launched 3 January 1938
On 3 January 1938 the Arabic Service began broadcasting to the Middle East, the first BBC foreign language service. The service was established on the recommendation of the Ullswater Committee on broadcasting "in the interest of British prestige and influence in world affairs". It was also a response to other nations, particularly the USSR, who were broadcasting their views to the world. However, the Postmaster General insisted from the outset that the BBC would broadcast straight news rather than propaganda.
The Arabic Service was launched with speeches by representatives from Yemen, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Aden. This was then followed by a short news bulletin in Arabic. The station was on the air for about an hour every day,supplemented with talks, readings and music.
Other foreign language services followed. The BBC began Spanish and Portuguese broadcasts to Latin America in March 1938, and French, German and Italian broadcasts in September. All of the BBC's foreign language broadcasts provided a valuable and trusted source of information during the Second World War.
The transformation from the early days of short-wave transmissions was completed in 2008 with the launch of BBC Arabic Television. Today BBC Arabic is a multi-media news service, available 24 hours a day on radio, online and on television.
The Open University programmes begin 3 January 1971
The Open University first broadcast on 3 January 1971 on BBC Two. The new university reached out to its first students through the innovative use of television and radio, and swiftly proved that it was possible to teach university level subjects to unqualified students at a distance. After a general introduction, the first programme was an introduction to mathematics.
Open University programmes were on at odd corners of the schedule, heralded by the animated OU logo and fanfare - the opening of Divertimento for Three Trumpets and Three Trombones by Leonard Salzedo. Many people who were not OU students saw them, and the broadcasts gained a frequently parodied reputation for dated style and awkward presentation. This was because there was insufficient money to update them unless the course itself was revised, and the presenters were academics rather than broadcasters. However, over 2 million people have benefitted from OU courses.
In 2006 the late night teaching ended, replaced by other teaching methods such as DVD and the internet. Today the Open University make programmes of general interest through a successful partnership with the BBC. Programmes such as The Money Programme and the award winning Coast are made to inspire an interest in lifelong learning in the viewer.
A Question of Sport 5 January 1970
The television quiz A Question of Sport first aired on 5 January 1970. The Radio Times promised "50 years of world sporting action on film, 50 of our greatest sporting stars - in the studio during the series". Presenter David Vine introduced team captains Henry Cooper and Cliff Morgan. Guest panellists on the first edition were George Best, Ray Illingworth, Lillian Board and Tom Finney.
The programme has only had three presenters over its long run. David Coleman replaced Vine in 1979 and Sue Barker became the current host in 1997. Many team captains have taken part including Ian Botham, Bill Beaumont, Emlyn Hughes, Brendan Foster, Willie Carson, Ally McCoist, Phil Tufnell and Matt Dawson. Guests have come from all areas of sport and included, in 1987, Princess Anne.
The format of the quiz has remained largely unchanged and generally starts and ends with the picture board round. Another perennial favourite is the Mystery Guest round, where the panellists have to identify a sports personality from a film in which they are glimpsed doing something out of character, such as staring through binoculars or gardening. A Question of Sport has survived, inspiring newcomers like they Think It's All Over, and regularly provides specials for Sport Relief.
Band Waggon 5 January 1938
Band Waggon was first broadcast on Wednesday 5 January 1938. It became the first of the great BBC comedy series and established a new formula for radio by airing at the same time on the same day and channel every week. It also popularised the idea of the resident comedian, with "big hearted" Arthur Askey starring alongside Richard "stinker" Murdoch. The programme only ran for three series, but became essential listening in the pre-war gloom.
Band Waggon was conceived as a dance band programme with comic links, but it looked to be a failure until Askey and Murdoch reworked their scripts, with Vernon Harris and Gordon Crier. They invented the Top Floor Flat in Broadcasting House, from which they did their entertaining. They peppered their routine with catchphrases that soon passed into common use, such as "ay thang you" and "hello playmates". Music remained a big part of the show, with The Band Waggoners conducted by Phil Cardew, the BBC Theatre Organ, and the Jackdauz, among others.
Band Waggon ended in 1939, but resulted in a stage tour and a successful film produced by Gainsborough in 1940. It provided the model for much of the radio comedy that followed, and its pioneering use of comedy sound effects became a staple of radio comedy that can be heard in shows such as The Goons.
The Forsyte Saga 7 January 1967
The Forsyte Saga, the BBC's adaptation of the novels of John Galsworthy, began on 7 January 1967. The drama - which spanned the period from 1879 to 1926 - was effectively a period soap opera, with each episode ending on a cliffhanger. The Forsyte Saga starred Kenneth More as Jolyon Forsyte, Eric Porter as his cousin Soames, and Nyree Dawn Porter as his wife Irene. It featured many remarkable performances and confirmed the stardom of Susan Hampshire, who played Fleur Forsyte.
The Forsyte Saga was produced by John Wilson who wrote many of the scripts and ensured it was structured to maintain interest over its 26 week run. It was filmed in black and white, unlike much output on BBC Two, but this was largely because there was a shortage of colour cameras. However the saga successfully attracted audiences to the new channel, with as many as 18 million viewers tuning in to the repeat.
The success of the Forsyte Saga led to further literary adaptations, particularly The Pallisers, which gave top billing to Hampshire. It also encouraged expenditure on big budget historical dramas in colour, such as The Six Wives of Henry VIII, and ushered in a golden age of BBC historical drama.
Listen with Mother 16 January 1950
Listen With Mother was first heard on 16 January 1950. It offered a mix of nursery rhymes, stories and music for the under-fives and their mothers but over the years developed a following across the generations. Each episode ended with the Berceuse from Faure's Dolly Suite, played on the piano by Eileen Brown and Roger Fiske.
Listen with Mother was broadcast at 1.45pm when children would be ready to concentrate after their lunch, and mothers would have time to sit with them. The presenters - including Daphne Oxenford, Julia Lang and Dorothy Smith - adopted a new intimate tone, talking as though to each child alone. The centre of the programme was the story, preceded by the calming phrase "Are you sitting comfortably? Then I'll begin". The question, originally an ad lib by Julia Lang, became so well known that it ended up in the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations.
When it was announced in 1982 that Listen With Mother was ending, there was a public outcry, and a petition supported by MPs and celebrities was delivered to Downing Street, along with a letter of protest from concerned professors of education. Today young children can hear CBeebies Radio every day on Radio7 or online.
Breakfast Time 17 January 1983
On 17 January 1983 at 6.30am television history was made - Breakfast Time, the UK's first regular morning television service was live and on the air. Presented by Frank Bough and Selina Scott it combined news and sport with lighter features, such as astrology with Russell Grant and keep fit segments with the Green Goddess, Diana Moran. The show surprised the media world as it was rather lightweight, and not a TV version of Radio 4's Today Programme as had been expected. The ITV rival, 'Good Morning Britain' from TV-AM, started just under a month later, and struggled to find an audience based on its rather more serious format - until the arrival of its most famous presenter, Roland Rat!
The Week's Good Cause 24 January 1926
The first charity appeal in The Week's Good Cause was broadcast on 24 January 1926. The appeal raised £1,025 0s 7d for the National Children's Home and Orphanage. It was made by Charles C Wakefield, Bt, and C.B.E. The broadcast was timed to follow the Sunday Service and became a feature of Sunday evening radio. Charities swiftly realised the power of radio to touch a large audience.
Charity appeals were not new to the BBC - the first was among the earliest broadcasts in 1923 - but the fundraising process was formalised in 1926 with the introduction of The Week's Good Cause and the creation of the BBC Charity Appeals Advisory Committee. The Committee advised on the allocation of appeals and the administration of donations. The Christmas appeal for children's charities was first made in 1934 by 'Uncle Mac'. This was the precursor to the current Children in Need.
Today the BBC Radio 4 Appeal continues every week, supporting a diverse range of UK charities, along with the monthly Lifeline appeal on BBC One. Large fund-raising projects such as Children in Need and Comic Relief raise millions of pounds for good causes using all platforms. The BBC is also able to respond swiftly to emergencies such as natural disasters with special appeals.
Television Dancing Club 27 January 1948
Television Dancing Club first took to the floor on 27 January 1948. It was presented by popular band leader Victor Silvester and his Ballroom Orchestra, and brought some much appreciated glamour into the homes of viewers struggling with post-war austerity. Its mixture of dance lessons, competitions and show-dances proved a great hit and it launched television's fascination with ballroom dancing that continues to this day.
Silvester was a veteran of radio dancing lessons from 1941, so it was natural for him to make the transition to television. He claimed to be able to teach "the magic way to ballroom dancing" by which viewers learned just one main step, which was danced in different variations. Each week he was joined by a presenter such as Rosalie Ashley or Patti Morgan, who would overcome the shortcomings of black and white by describing the ladies ball gowns in detail. Viewers voted by postcard for the best dancing couple, posting them to Television Dancing Club, BBC, London W12.
In 1950 Come Dancing joined Television Dancing Club, and the two programmes ran on alternate weeks until 1964, when Television Dancing Club finished. Come Dancing's focus on regional competitions proved to be an enduring hit, and survives today in the BBC One hit Strictly Come Dancing.
Desert Island Discs 29 January 1942
Desert Island Discs was devised by Roy Plomley, who presented the first edition on 29 January 1942. It was recorded two days earlier with comedian Vic Oliver, in the bomb-damaged Maida Vale Studios. The success of the programme has always owed much to its simple format, which allows for sometimes revealing interviews. However, early programmes were scripted, to comply with wartime censorship.
Guests are invited to imagine they are shipwrecked on a desert island, and to pick 8 gramophone records to take with them. As the show developed they were then allowed one luxury item - not a survival aid - and a single book. It was imagined that the Bible and the complete works of Shakespeare were already there. Plomley's original idea had been for Desert Island Discs to open with the sound of breaking waves and seagulls, but worries that this would prove too indistinct led to the addition of By the Sleepy Lagoon, by Eric Coates. The theme so impressed second castaway James Agate that he made it one of his choices.
Plomley presented 1791 editions before his death in 1985. Since that time the presenters have been Michael Parkinson, Sue Lawley and currently, Kirsty Young. Today the format of Desert Island Discs remains unchanged, despite the rise of the mp3, but it has an impressive online archive of past shows. It continues to attract guests of the highest calibre.