- Contributed by
- People in story:
- Anthony ( Anton ) Witkowski
- Location of story:
- Poland to UK
- Background to story:
- Royal Air Force
- Article ID:
- Contributed on:
- 08 May 2005
LAC Anthony Witkowski ( far right of Picture) & Pals RAF 306 Spitfire Squadron.
Born in 1913 in Minsk,Poland to Stanislaw & Krystyna Witkowski.
He lived in Moscow until he was two years old as his father worked in the Polish Embassy.In 1917 he then moved with his parents back to Wilno where his Grandmother lived which was part of Poland before 1939.
His Father then worked as a Railway Official and his mother continued to work as a Midwife. His Father was a keen gardener and always kept him busy in the garden with the many fruit trees they grew.
He was an Alter boy at St Anne's local Catholic Church in Wilno, which is now (Vilnius,Lithuania).
He was a very keen stamp collector and had quite a valuable collection before the onset of WW2. He also played Ice Hockey in Poland.
After finishing College he worked in a Power station as an electrician.
He later joined the Polish Air Force. His Father died in 1939 and is buried in Rasu Cemetery along with lots of Polish Military dignitaries.
When WW2 broke out he was stationed at the barracks near Wilno together with the 5th regiment took part in the 1939 September campaign in Poland.
He had to leave his Mother as the Polish Air Force Unit he was with had to flee the advance of the German Army through Poland.
Like many Poles he fled into Romania with his unit where he was eventually interned there in various Polish Army Camps.
He was put to work on a farm with his comrades where their captives gave them very little food. He was very lucky to survive as many of his comrades died of Malaria.
He managed to escape the farm with some colleagues and eventually was given a job in the Polish Embassy in Bucharest. The Polish Military Attaché in Bucharest later called him up for training.
In March of 1940 he left Romania and via Istanbul,Turkey, he made his way by sea to Haifa, Palestine, where he joined his Polish colleagues once again on 25th Oct 1940.
He visited Bethlehem at that time at Christmas for Midnight Mass with all his colleagues.
The choir on the night was made up of Polish Airmen.
He said it was one of the most moving experiences he had.
In October he was posted to the reserve Centre of the Carpathian Rifle Brigade.
The Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade 1940/41.
Formed in April 1940 from Polish exiles in the French Levant (today known as Syria), as part of the French forces there. Two infantry regiments, a cavalry regiment (Carpathian Lancers), and supporting units (including a Carpathian HMG Battalion) numbering 3500 soldiers.
In June 1940, the brigade came under British control and moved to Palestine.
From there, the Brigade moved to combat in North Africa, and in Mar 1942, withdrew through Egypt back to Palestine to reorganise.
He stayed alongside the Australian Units and eventually came to England in 1941 after rejoining the Polish Airforce. He was posted to the Polish Air Force Depot, RAF Station, Blackpool.
It was at the same time General Sikorski and others rebanded the Polish Air Force.
His Cousin and some of his close friends died at the battle of Monte Casino.We have just found a reference in the papers he kept which reads,
"We Polish Soldiers for our freedom and yours have given our Souls to God,our bodies to the soil of Italy and our hearts to Poland " This was dated (Monte Casino 1943)
At a later stage during the war his mother went to live in Biala Podlaska(the house still stands today)
This was after the Germans bombed her house.
The valuable stamp collection was lost in the destruction.
At one stage the Russian Army interned her for two years.
His service record shows that during WW2 he was stationed at many different Air Force Bases throughout the UK, such as Cranwell, Sealand,Northolt etc, this was with the Polish Air Force Wing of the 306 Spitfire Squadron as an electrical Engineer working on the Spitfires preparing them for battle etc. He trained at the Signal School in Radio Signals and Communication at Cranwell. Later he went on to be a Signals Instructor at the school.
In 1944 he married Mary Prendergast (my mum) at St Chad's RC, Church in Cheetham.
19-9-41 No 1 Signals School RAF Station Cranwell
23-1-42 No 306 Polish Spitfire Fighter Squadron
2-10-42 No 30 Maintenance Unit RAF Station Sealand
15-3-44 No 131 Airfield HQ RAF Station Northolt
24-4-44 No 6308 Service Echelon (on the continent from 3-8-44)
14-1-46 No 6315 Service Echelon
08-8-46 No 1 Radio School RAF Station Cranwell
He went on to serve with the 306 Spitfire Squadron.
No. 306 Squadron ( Badge "Torunski" ) was formed at Church Fenton on 28 August 1940, manned by Polish personnel and equipped with Hurricanes.
It became operational on 8th September and moved to Northolt in April 1941 to take part in sweeps over northern France until October, when it was allocated to the defence of Merseyside.
Spitfires replaced Hurricanes in July 1941 and in December the squadron moved to south-west England to undertake sweeps over north-west France.
After a few weeks in Lincolnshire in May 1942, No.306 was back at Northolt for further sweeps until moving to Yorkshire in March 1944, converted to Mustangs.
With these it helped cover the landings in Normandy, but was transferred soon afterwards to combating flying bombs over south-east England.
In October 1944, the squadron moved to East Anglia for bomber escort duties, a task which it carried out until the end of the war.
The squadron remained in fighter command until disbanded on 6 January 1947.
Due to gradual demobilisation of the Polish Air Force under British Command, he was enlisted in the Polish resettlement Corps (PRC/RAF) and served in the UK until finally discharged at the rank of L.A.C, on the 15th of January 1949, on absorption into Industry.
He was awarded the Polish Air Force Medal and 2 Barrs.
1939/45 Star, France and Germany Star, The Defence Medal and War Medal, 1939/45.
Research shows his name is on a list of awards for the Virtuti Militari Medal for his services in the War.
This medal was awarded for the Polish Military overseas and is as important as the British Victoria Cross.
Further research and advise shows his service was unique because he served in Both Army and Air Force which means he was wearing two uniforms during the war and two sets of insignias.
Having his record documents analysed he was automatically entitled and authorised to use the following insignias.
10 Year Long Service medal - WWII Army Medal - WWII Air Force Medal.
WWII Victory Medal - September 1939 Medal - September 1939 Cross.
WWII Fighters of Freedom Cross and badge.
Signal Corps Training Center - Radio School Badge - Signal Corps School badge
5th Air Force Regiment badge-306th Torun Fighter Squadron badge-Radio crewmembers wings
Indep Carpathian Regiment badge - Polish II Corps Badge
POLAND patch - 2nd Corps Patch sleeve
8th British Army patch - Carpathian Rifle Division patch - Repatriation Corps patch
WWII Exile Cross of Freedom and Independence Crowned Eagle, Army Air Force Crowned Eagle, both pre WWII and WWII issue Air Force patch. Army Crowned Eagle, WWII.
We believe he never received the Virtuti Militaria medal and there is a chance we can obtain it and the other medals at a future date as part of our Family History.
My Mother still has the case he kept with him from 1939 where his mother placed a picture of Our Lady of Czestochowa (the Black Madonna) in the lid of the case.
From records his last know address in Poland was 3 Maja No 36 Slonim, County of Nowegrodek Now in Belarus.
He recorded on his Airforce documents one of his next of kin, Regina Cynikowna (relationship not recorded), UL Bulwar Oginskiego No 3 Slonim.
My Grandmother used to write but her last letter came in 1953 and that was the last time anyone ever heard from her. My dad worked until retirement at Bradford Colliery as an electrician.
During his life in the UK he continued with his hobby of stamp collecting.
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