The Daily Mirror describes the scenes of jubilation in London and around the country as the Great War ends and the armistice is signed.
The Daily Mirror describes the scenes of jubilation in London and around the country as the Great War ends and the armistice is signed.
Allied occupation of Rhineland - garrisons at Mainz, Coblenz and Cologne
U-Boats given up - 74 warships to disarm
History has no more glorious day than yesterday, which saw the end of the Great World War and the triumph of Great Britain and her Allies.
Germany, beaten in the field, menaced by certain invasion and overwhelmed by internal revolution, capitulated to the Allies and accepted what will probably be the sternest terms of all time. The principal points are:
The Armistice, which is to last for 36 days, was signed at 5am by the German delegates. Hostilities ceased at 11am.
The Great War Lasted - Four years, 14 Weeks, and two days
The terms of the Armistice were given to the House of Commons yesterday by Mr Lloyd George. 'The Armistice was signed at 5am this morning,' he said. 'War ceased at eleven o'clock this morning.'
Invaded Territories Freed - Immediate evacuation of invaded territories, Belgium, France, Alsace-Lorraine and Luxembourg to be completed within 14 days.
German troops who have not left these territories within 14 days to be treated as prisoners of war.
The occupation by the Allied and United States forces will keep pace with the evacuation.
Repatriation will begin at once, to be completed at once.
Surrender of Guns - The surrender by the German Government of the following equipment: 5,000 guns of which 2,500 will be heavy and 2,500 field guns, 30,000 machine guns, 3,000 flame-throwers and 2,000 aeroplanes.
Evacuation of Rhineland - The evacuation by German armies on the left bank of the Rhine. This territory shall be administered by the local authorities, under the control of the Allied and United States Armies of occupation. The occupation of the territories will be carried out by the Allied garrisons holding the reciprocal crossings of the Rhine at Mainz, Coblenz and Cologne, together with the bridgeheads at those points for 30km range on the right bank.
Industrial Zone - An industrial zone shall be set up on the right bank of the Rhine between the river and the line drawn between the Dutch and Swiss frontiers.
In the case of inhabitants of the neutral zone, no person shall be prosecuted for having taken part in military measures previous to the signing of the Armistice.
Evacuation of the Rhineland shall be completed within 31 days after signing of the Armistice. No evacuation of inhabitants and no damage to property.
5,000 locomotives, military stores, food establishments to be delivered intact; also 50,000 wagon and 5,000 locomotives.
Alsace-Lorraine railways to be handed over.
The material necessary for the working of the railways in the country on the left bank of the Rhine shall be left intact.
Mines and Poisoned Springs - The German command shall be responsible for revealing all mines or delayed action fuses, and shall assist in their discovery and destruction. Also the position of poisoned springs under penalty of reprisals.
The cost of keeping all troops in the Rhineland, excluding Alsace-Lorraine, shall be charged to the German Government.
All Allied and United States prisoners of war shall be immediately repatriated without reciprocity.
The return of German prisoners shall be settled at the peace preliminaries.
Out of Russia - All German troops at present in any territory which before the war belonged to Russia, Rumania and Turkey shall withdraw within the frontiers of Germany as they existed on 1 August 1914.
All German troops at present in territories which before the war formed part of Russia must likewise return to the frontiers of Germany to be defined as soon as the Allies think the moment suitable, having regard to the internal condition of these territories.
The evacuation of German troops shall begin at once.
The treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk shall be completely abandoned.
Free access to territories evacuated by Germany. Repatriation without reciprocity within one month of all civilians interned.
Return of Stolen Gold - Immediate restitution of the cash belonging to the National Bank of Belgium.
Immediate return of all documents, stocks, shares and paper money belonging to the invaded countries.
Restitution of Russian and Rumanian gold.
Sea War to Cease - Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea and definite information to be given as to the location and movement of all German ships.
Notification to neutrals of freedom of navigation of all territorial waters to be given to the mercantile ships of the Allied and associated Powers.
Naval Prisoners - All naval and mercantile prisoners of war in German hands to be returned without reciprocity.
Surrender of all available submarines - including all submarine cruisers and mine-layers.
The following warships to forthwith be disarmed and interned in neutral ports to be designated by the Allies and placed under the Allies surveillance. Six battle cruisers, ten battleships, eight light cruisers, including two mine-layers, 50 destroyers of most modern type.
Heligoland - A declaration has been signed by the Allied delegates and handed to the German delegates to the effect that in the event of ships not being handed over, owning to the mutinous state of the fleet, the Allies reserve the right to occupy Heligoland as an advanced base to enable them to enforce the terms of Armistice. The German delegates signed a declaration that they will recommend the Chancellor to accept this.
The right to sweep up all mines outside territorial waters.
Access to Baltic - Freedom of access to and from the Baltic to be given to the naval forces of the Allied Powers. To secure this the Allies and the United States shall be empowered to occupy all German ports and batteries and defence works of all kinds in the entrance to the Cattegat and Baltic, and to sweep up mines.
All German merchant ships at sea are to remain liable to capture.
Naval Aircraft - All naval aircraft are to be surrendered and demobilised at bases to be specified by the Allies and the United States of America.
All Black Sea ports to be evacuated by the Germans.
Russian warships seized by Germany in the Black Sea are to be handed over and all neutral ships seized by Germany to be released.
No transference of German ships to any neutral flag is to take place during Armistice.
Blockade to Continue - Existing blockade conditions set up by the Allied Powers are to remain unchanged and all German merchant ships found at sea are to remain liable to capture. The Allies and United States contemplate the provisioning of Germany during the Armistice as shall be found necessary.
East Africa - Unconditional evacuation of all German forces within one month.
Duration of Armistice to be 36 days, failure to be denounced by any one of the contracting parties.
Marshal Foch to Commander-in-Chief: Hostilities will cease on the whole front as from November 11am. The Allied troops will not, until further order, go beyond the line reached on that date and at that hour. (Signed Marshal Foch)
The German Plenipotentiaries to the German High Command: The whole of the Commission will return to Spa today by the route agreed upon. Captain Geyer will return by aeroplane, following the Hilson-Fumay-Philippeville route. He will land at Amorville at 1pm. Kindly facilitate his journey towards Spa as quickly as possible. The French aeroplane will show two white lights. (Signed Von Winterfeld, Admiralty, per Wireless Press)
British Back on Old Mons Battlefield
How Military Victory Alone Brought Peace
France, Monday: The British Army began its first battle of the war at Mons on 22 August 1914, and by the grace of God our troops stood in this same spot when the order came to cease fire. (Reuters Special)
General Headquarters, Monday, 11am: Shortly after dawn this morning Canadian troops of the First Army, General Horne, captured Mons. Hostilities were suspended at 11am this morning. At that hour our troops had reached the following general line: Franco-Belgian frontier, east of Avegnes-Jeumont-Givry, four miles east of Mons-Chevres-Leasineg-Grammont.
The RAF (Independent Force) report that on the afternoon of November 10, besides the raids already reported, our machines attacked the railway junctions at Ebrange. On the night of November 10-11, our machines attacked hostile aerodromes at Morhange, Frescaty and Lellinghan and railways at Metz-Sablon. Ten direct hits on hangers were observed at Morhange.
(French Official) East of the Forest of Trelon we reached the Belgium frontier. The Italian troops entered Roerny. After severe fighting we have forced the passages of the Meuse between Vrigne and Lumes.
(American Official) In accordance with the terms of the Armistice, hostilities on the fronts of the American armies were suspended.
The Daily Mirror learnt that the Belgians have occupied Ghent.
The end of the war is almost solely due not to the outbreak of a demand for a popular government, but to the military feats of the Allies. The German spirit of liberty is a spirit born of defeat, and it was not until their armies were broken in the west that the German people felt they would like to be free of the autocratic rulers.
The war has ended in a great military victory.
Germany's Message to Mr Wilson
News sent through the wireless stations of the German Government includes the following message: The German Government has received the conditions of the Armistice. After a blockade of 50 months those conditions - especially the surrender of the means of transport and the sustenance of the troops of occupation - would make it impossible to provide Germany with food and would cause the starvation of millions. The German people, therefore, in this fateful hour, address themselves again to the President with the request to use his influence with the Allied Powers in order to mitigate these fearful conditions. (Signed Solf)
The Secretary of the Admiralty issues a wireless intercept, giving a message from the Command and Soldiers Council, SMS Strasbourg. The message quotes an extract from the naval terms of the Armistice and the fact that the blockade is to continue. It goes on: 'This would entail the destruction of us all. German comrades, defend our country against this unheard of presumption. Strong English forces are reported off the Skaw. All submarines in the Baltic, except those on outpost duty, assemble at once in Sansnitz Harbour.'
Amsterdam, Monday: A Bremen telegram to the Dutch Press states that the whole of the North Sea Fleet and also Heligoland are in the hands of the Soldiers' Council. (Reuters)
Amsterdam, Monday: A Berlin telegram says that the negotiations between the Socialist Party and the Independent Socialists with a view to forming a joint Government have been concluded. (Reuters)
Wonderful Scenes of Enthusiasm Everywhere - City Given Up to Rejoicings
London went wild with delight when the great news came through yesterday. Bells burst forth into joyful chimes, maroons were exploded, bands paraded the streets followed by cheering crowds of soldiers and civilians and London generally gave itself up wholeheartedly to rejoicing.
There was a scene of wonderful loyalty at Buckingham Palace, dense crowds were shouting 'We want the King!' The King, the Queen, Princess Mary and the Duke of Connaught appeared on the balcony and His Majesty spoke a few words. Indescribable scenes of enthusiasm followed.
A tremendous crowd assembled outside the French Embassy shortly after the news was made known. The French Ambassador, accompanied by a Military Attaché and the personnel of the Embassy appeared on the balcony. Monsieur Cambon smiled and bowed his acknowledgements while the personnel of the Embassy returned the cheers of the crowd.
Outside St Paul's a shouting concourse included kneeling figures at prayer. Processions of soldiers and munition girls arm in arm were everywhere. American soldiers in jubilation invaded Downing Street. Conversation in the Strand was impossible owing to the din of cheers, whistles, hooters and fireworks.
Big Ben struck victory chime at 3pm yesterday afternoon. Later the famous clock was lit up.
To commemorate the cessation of hostilities on all fronts, Mr SJ Waring has asked Sir Edwin Lutyens to prepare a new design for a permanent shrine for Hyde Park which shall symbolise the victory of right over might and the triumph of justice. Mr Waring is informed that such a memorial will cost him roughly £50,000.
The Home Office has telegraphed to the police authorities intimating that a certain relaxation on the Lighting Regulation is permitted. The masking of street lamps may be removed, but in view of the coal shortage the total number in use should not exceed one half the normal.
The screening of lights in houses and shops may be withdrawn but the prohibition of lights in shop windows and of advertisement lights must be maintained on account of the coal shortage.
The military authorities will give permission for the display of fireworks and bonfires subject to the approval by the police, and the sale of fireworks for authorised displays is permitted, but the general use of fireworks by the public is not permitted at present.
The restrictions on the ringing of bells and the striking of public clocks at night are withdrawn.
London looked strange last night, with its streets comparatively well lighted. Many shops and restaurants did not trouble to draw blinds and curtains, while in the West End the scene was quite a gay one.
All the great cities and towns throughout the country entered with joyous spirit into the peace celebrations, while villages and hamlets, too, had their rejoicing and peals of bells.
Business was suspended generally, shops and houses were decorated with flags, and the people everywhere were delirious with delight.
It was officially announced yesterday that the Government has decided that all recruiting under the Military Service Acts is to be suspended. All outstanding calling-up notices, whether for medical examinations or service, are cancelled. All cases pending before tribunals should be suspended.
Washington, Monday: All outstanding draft calls for the army have been cancelled. (Reuters)
Royal Speech to Great Gathering At Buckingham Palace
The most wonderful scene of enthusiastic rejoicing took place before Buckingham Palace. Dense crowds collected before the Palace gates, processions of cheering, beflagged civilians and fighting men marched down the Mall.
'We want the King!' went up the shout every few minutes and at last, greeted by a thunderous cheer, the King in the uniform of an admiral, the Queen and Princess Mary and the Duke of Connaught appeared on the balcony.
'With you I rejoice and thank God for the victories which the Allied arms have won, bringing hostilities to an end and peace within sight.'
This was the King's speech to his waiting subjects, who greeted it with renewed cheers, and the Queen waved a Union Jack. The band played 'God Save the King', 'Tipperary', 'The Old Hundredth' and the National Anthems of the Allies. At the end of the demonstration 'Auld Lang Syne' was sung and the King, waving his hat to the crowd, left the balcony.
In the afternoon the King and Queen drove through the City and again received a tremendous ovation.
Again in the evening about 1,000 national service girls marched to Buckingham Palace. In response to repeated calls the King and Queen regardless of the rain, came out on the balcony and had an enormous reception.
One of the first things the crowd did in Piccadilly was to smash the glass box indicating 'Air Raid Shelter'.
A Service of Thanksgiving for victory and the cessation of hostilities will be held at St Paul's at 12.15pm today, and will be attended by the King and Queen.
The King has sent congratulatory messages to the Navy, Army and Air Force.
Navy: 'Never in its history has the Royal Navy with God's help, done greater things for us.'
Army: 'You have traversed a long and weary road. Defeat has more than once stared you in the face. Your ranks have been thinned again and again, but your faith has never faltered, your courage has never failed, your hearts have never known defeat.'
Air Force: 'Our far flung squadrons have flown over home waters and foreign seas, the western and Italian battle lines, Rhineland and mountains of Macedonia, Gallipoli, Palestine, the plains of Mesopotamia, the forests and swamps of East Africa, the north west frontier of India and the deserts of Arabia, Sinai and Darfur.'
The King has also sent congratulatory messages to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Newfoundland, India and all the Allied countries.
Paris, Monday: This morning at 11am the peace gunshot from Mont Valerin told Paris that the Armistice was concluded. The great news spread like a train of powder and every window frame burst into flowers and flags.
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