In late May, against the backdrop of the Dunkirk evacuation and the unstoppable German advance, Churchill disregarded calls for peace talks with Hitler. Britain would fight on, he ordered.
Photo: Churchill examines a Tommy gun during an inspection of invasion defences near Hartlepool, 31 July 1940. (IWM H2646)
Dowding's role in the Battle of Britain
A.J.P. Taylor describes the crucial role that Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding played in the Battle of Britain. He also discusses Dowding's argument with Churchill that led to the former being discarded after the battle was over.
Churchill's first great contribution.
A.J.P. Taylor describes the importance of Churchill's refusal to surrender to Hitler.
Lady Soames and Gore Vidal offer their thoughts on the origins of Churchill's oratorical skills.
Lady Soames, Churchill's daughter, describes his astounding memory and his skills as an orator. Gore Vidal, meanwhile, claims Churchill was influenced by an Irish-American speaker called William Bourke Cochran.
Andrew Marr explains Churchill's dramatic decision
Andrew Marr reveals why Churchill refused to consider Chamberlain and Halifax’s recommendations for peace talks with the Nazis, and how he passionately declared Britain would fight on to the end.
British forces are evacuated from Dunkirk.
Richard Holmes describes how Churchill took the "astonishingly risky" decision to evacuate British troops from Dunkirk. Holmes suggests that this was part of the same indomitable spirit that led Churchill to declare that he would die for his country before he surrendered.
A peace deal is discussed
When Churchill became Prime Minister, he immediately created a coalition to ensure that the government would work together. The War Cabinet consisted of Churchill, former Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, the Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, Labour leader Clement Attlee and Labour deputy leader Arthur Greenwood. Halifax had been Churchill’s rival for the premiership when Chamberlain had stepped down earlier in the month.
On Sunday 26, Monday 27 and Tuesday 28 May 1940, the war cabinet met nine times to discuss whether Mussolini’s Italy should be asked to mediate a peace deal with Nazi Germany. Italy, although allied to Germany, had not yet joined the war against Britain and France.
Lord Halifax's position
Halifax argued for a truce, and had already discussed the issue with Italy’s ambassador to London. Many historians argue that Halifax was being realistic. After all, the British campaign in Norway had been disastrous; Allied military operations in France had collapsed; there had been forced evacuations from Dunkirk; and Belgium had surrendered to Germany on 28 May. While the British government deliberated, the French government was crumbling as France was seized, city by city, by the Nazis.
Halifax thought the British government would have to acknowledge Hitler’s triumph in Europe. This would be humiliating but it could then try to secure a measure of autonomy and even continue to have an imperial role. A truce could also mean that Britain would avoid the violent battles that had been fought over Poland and France.
Churchill, however, believed it was more important for Britain to go down fighting, as "those [nations] which surrendered tamely were finished". Most importantly, this was what the public wanted, and Churchill argued that even exploring peace terms with Hitler would be an admission of defeat.
Furthermore, he said Germany couldn’t be trusted to respect any such treaty. Churchill was convinced that Hitler would seize the opportunity to take over the Royal Navy and its naval bases, and to set up a puppet state governed by someone like the Fascist leader Oswald Mosley.
However, if Britain continued to fight, he said, she could provide a beacon of resistance and, in time, a base from which Europe could be reclaimed.
Churchill persuades his cabinet
Churchill called a meeting with the ministers from the Outer Cabinet on 28 May to try to win their support. He succeeded, partly with an impassioned speech in which he said: "If this long island story of ours is to end at last, let it end only when each one of us lies choking in his own blood upon the ground".
The other ministers’ support for Churchill effectively ended Halifax’s campaign for peace talks. For Churchill, this was the first, and possibly most important, victory of his war-time premiership.
Almost two weeks later, Italy declared war on the Allies and on 22 June France signed their armistice with Germany. Britain was left to fight Nazi Germany alone but, led by Churchill, it would be a fight to the death.