In the Sixteenth Century Spain dominated European politics and trade. At first Elizabeth's moderate religious policy ensured England did not pose a threat. However, the excommunication of Elizabeth, the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, English support for rebels in the Spanish Netherlands and participation in Atlantic trade infuriated Spain. Philip felt that England should be forced to take a subservient position in European politics. The events that followed have become an intrinsic part of both Spanish and English history.