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Chronicles of the Vikings: records, memorials and myths by RI Page (British Museum Press, 1995)
Cultural Atlas of the Viking World by James Graham-Campbell, Colleen Batey, Helen Clarke, RI Page and Neil S Price (Andromeda, 1994)
Viking Scotland by Anna Ritchie (Batsford, 1993)
Viking Age England by Julian D Richards (Batsford, 1991)
The Viking Dig: The Excavations at York by Richard Hall (Bodley Head, 1984)
Scar: A Viking Boat Burial on Sanday, Orkney by Olwyn Owen and Magnar Dalland (Tuckwell Press/East Linton, 1999)
The Age of Charlemagne by Donald Bullough (Paul Elek, 1965)
Orkneyinga Saga translated by Hermann Palsson and Paul Edwards (Hogarth Press, 1978)
A History of the English Language by NF Blake (Macmillan, 1996). An accessible and modern discussion of the growth of English.
The Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names by E Eckwall (Oxford University Press, 1960). Still the most useful book on place names.
The Origins and Development of the English Language by Thomas Pyles and John Algeo (Harcourt Brace Jovanich, 1993). A comprehensive guide to the evolution of English, well organised into sections.
The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England edited by Michael Lapidge, John Blair, Simon Keynes and DG Scragg (Blackwell, 1999). A thorough guide by leading scholars into all aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture, including entries on the Vikings, Old Norse, place-names, and numerous individuals, texts and places.
The Oxford Illustrated History of the Viking edited by P Sawyer (Oxford University Press, 1997). A colourful, full discussion of the activities of the Vikings.
Places to visit
The most obvious place to visit to learn more about the Vikings is the Jorwik Centre in York. York itself was the seat of Viking kings, and the Centre recreates the sights, sounds and smells of the 10th-century city.
Other cities with excellent museums that include finds from Viking settlements are Leicester (Jewry Wall Museum) and Nottingham (Castle Museum). Most cities also have dedicated museums, including Lincoln, Derby, Peterborough and Norwich. In these, information about the history of the regions and archaeological discoveries bring the Viking and early medieval periods to life.
Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh. Viking artefacts from across Scotland and a reconstructed grave from the Westness cemetery, Orkney.
Heritage Trails. Most cities now offer heritage trails, available from Tourist Information centres, which allow you to retrace the footsteps of medieval ancestors, and investigate the surviving architecture from earlier centuries.
Or visit the islands themselves - Brough of Birsay, Orkney. On this spectacular tidal island are the remains of Viking houses and a 12th-century church.
Jarlshof, Shetland. A stunning site that spans five and a half millennia, including four centuries of a Viking farmstead.
Libraries and local history. Local libraries will provide a wealth of interesting material for the medieval period and the Viking settlements. Look especially for local history books and pamplets, which will provide a guide to places of interest in your locality. Local history and archaeology groups often have public lectures on aspects of early England. These should be advertised in your local library or look up special interest groups in the telephone directory.
Sign-spotting. Travelling around the old Danelaw counties investigating place names is a fun and rewarding activity. You can also do this with a map from your armchair! Try to find as many places as possible with Old English origins (ending in -tun, -burh, -feld, for example), and with Scandinavian origins (-by, -thorpe, -toft, -thwaite) to work out where the Viking settlers chose to make their homes, how close they were to their English neighbours, and the kinds of activities in which they might have engaged.
Living history. There are numerous re-enactment groups who stage annual events where villages and battles are recreated. These are advertised by English Heritage, local newspapers and Tourist Information centres. The Vikings, a living history group, puts on a whole range of activities.
To see how the Anglo-Saxons lived and worked, visit West Stow Anglo-Saxon Village in Suffolk. St Edmund himself, martyred by the Vikings in the 9th century, was interred at the abbey of nearby Bury St Edmunds.
Bede's World in Jarrow, Northumberland is a wonderful site recreating many aspects of early Anglo-Saxon England. The nearby church of Jarrow was where Bede himself lived and worked, and it still retains the original foundation stone for all to see.
In 991, the East Anglian Anglo-Saxons, led by Earl Byrthnorth, were totally defeated by the Vikings at the Battle of Maldon. The site of this battle, commemorated in the famous Old English poem, The Battle of Maldon, can still be visited today, near the River Pante in Essex.
Viking Ship Museum. Images and descriptions of finds from the great ship burials at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune, as well as finds from the chieftain grave at Borre in Norway.
Anglo-Saxon England (Minnesota State University). The Anglo-Saxon England Ring contains some interesting material on King Canute.
The Vikings. The National Association of Re-enactment Societies offers the chance to watch or take part in re-created moments from the past.
Regia Anglorum. A living history club recreating English life 1000 years ago.
The World of the Vikings. An ever-changing mix of Viking related material.
History of the English Language. Interesting material on the development of English.
Word Detective. A humorous look at the development of language.