Adipose is another name for the energy-storing fatty tissue found inside humans and animals. It's burnt off over extended periods of time to meet the needs of the body.
2007's Voyage of the Damned is referenced - but true to form, Donna doesn't believe the Titanic soared above Buckingham palace! Donna previously missed the Sycorax over London in 2005's The Christmas Invasion and the Battle of Canary Wharf in 2006's Doomsday! Donna's Grandad, Wilf, is equally good at missing aliens it would seem!
Miss Foster's Sonic Pen is the latest in a long line of sound-based devices to feature in the Doctor Who universe. Others include Sarah Jane Smith's Sonic Lipstick, Captain Jack's Sonic Blaster and, of course, the Doctor's Sonic Screwdriver. The Doctor also used a sonic lance in 1985's Attack of the Cybermen, while those famous Martian monsters, the Ice Warriors, used sonic canons.
Sarah Lancashire is perhaps best known by UK audiences for playing Raquel in over 170 episodes of the ITV soap opera Coronation Street. She also appeared alongside Ninth Doctor Christopher Eccleston and Series Three supervillain John Simm in the BBC Drama Clocking Off.
Howard Attfield, who appeared as Geoff Noble in 2006's The Runaway Bride, originally reprised his role as Donna's father for this episode. Sadly, Howard passed away shortly after recording his scenes for Partners in Crime, so Bernard Cribbins stepped in to play Donna's grandfather, Wilf. Bernard previous appeared as the same character (although we didn't know it) in Voyage Of The Damned.
In the script, the original design steer for the Adipose creatures was given as the Pillsbury Dough Boy. The mascot of a US firm specialising in ready-to-bake products, the Pillsbury Dough Boy was created in 1965 and has appeared in over 600 commercials for the company.
When the Doctor says he's met Cat People, he's probably referring to the ones he encountered on New Earth - but he could also be referring to the Cheetah People from 1989's Survival. The working title of that story was Cat Flap.