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Norway resorts to ship-watching from space

Jonathan Amos | 08:10 UK time, Tuesday, 6 July 2010

Norway's coastline is huge. The mainland's rim stretches for more than 2,500km but if you measure it to include all the fjords and nooks and crannies, it comes out at more than 25,000km.

Norway watersLittle wonder then that the Scandinavian nation relies heavily on satellites to help it monitor what's going on around its territory.

And it has a fascinating mission launching in the next few days that will enable it to keep even better watch on its waters.

AISSat-1 is what's termed a nano-sat. It's a small cube measuring 20cm along the square and weighing just 6kg, but it carries a clever little instrument.

It will track the movement of all large ships moving around Norway by picking up the signals from their AIS (Automatic Identification System) transponders.

All vessels over 300 gross tonnes (and all passenger ships) now have to carry AIS.

It is, in first instance, a short-range ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore system that details not just position, course, and speed, but also information about a ship's type, draught, cargo - even its captain.

Model of AISSat-1You can get an idea of what AIS is capable of doing by clicking on this link which goes to a page that does live tracking off Stavanger.

The limitation of AIS is that communication with a coastal receiving station is line of sight, meaning it's possible to keep track of vessels to no more than about 50-70km off shore (unless you put another receiver on a rig, say).

And with Norwegian territorial waters encompassing two million square km, you can see why the national authorities might want to boost the effectiveness of the system.

Bo Andersen, director general of the Norwegian Space Centre, told me:

"Norway has the largest sea area to mange in Europe. And this area is the source for a lot of Norwegian income, from oil to fisheries. And we want to manage these resources in the best possible manner; and we do that now with radar satellites that give us quite a good overview about where ships are. But they don't give us knowledge about which ships they are.
"Of course, the fisheries authorities and the coastguard can go out in aeroplanes and check the ships, but we are talking about an area that's bigger than the Mediterranean. So we want a more efficient system.
"Along our coast, we have lanes where ships must go. There are strict rules on how close vessels can come to the coast, and for different types of cargo you might want ships to go further away. With this system you can follow if those ships are following the lanes they're obliged to."

Norway has already tested Space-AIS with a special receiver flown on the space station. This is the source of the remarkable maps posted on this page.

AIS tracks across the globeIn the above image, the progress of Norwegian ships (black arrows) is tracked on successive ISS passes. The map at the bottom shows a close-up view of the North Pacific.

The Norwegian Space Centre is adamant that the country's only interest is to monitor what vessels are doing in its waters. AISSat-1, when it gets into orbit, will not be collecting data to sell to other parts of the world. Bo Andersen again:

"The International Maritime Organisation has set down a working group to find out what sort of regulations there should be on AIS from space. It is clear that this type of information is very sensitive. It's commercially sensitive in that it tells you where your competitor's boats are. It is security sensitive in that it could tell a pirate off Somalia which ships are coming that would be a good sitting duck with a lot of money. So this is not the type of system you would want to become completely open."

Certainly, AISSat-1 is going to become a very valuable tool for the Norwegians. Its waters are likely to get ever more crowded in future years.

One can imagine that if Arctic sea-ice continues its retreat, more fisheries vessels will want to come into the region, and many more cargo ships will want to make use of the North East Passage.

It is perhaps not surprising therefore that Norway is already talking about an AISSat-2 even before AISSat-1 has left the ground.

AIS tracks near Alaska


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  • 1. At 12:11pm on 06 Jul 2010, Tim Howell wrote:

    If there is only one satellite, coverage will be far from continuous, not to say extremely intermittent (hence presumably already plans for a second satellite?); whilst an operational system would require many more. The great advantage appears to be use of equipment ships have to carry anyway (pace use of GPS/INMARSAT-D terminals,the so-called 'blue boxes', to monitor fishing vessels subject to the EU Common Fisheries Policy, which have to be a mandatory, specific 'add-on').

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  • 2. At 1:28pm on 06 Jul 2010, Jonathan Amos wrote:

    @Tim Howell: AISSat-1's orbit means it should get a view of Norwegian waters every 100 mins. Remember that a large ship doesn't move very far on that timescale so permanent eyes are not so necessary for this type of application.

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  • 3. At 5:18pm on 07 Jul 2010, ghostofsichuan wrote:

    Good application and planned to meet a need and future needs. Smart use of resources. Some governments actually do the right things.

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  • 4. At 5:51pm on 07 Jul 2010, David wrote:

    This sounds just brilliant. Best of luck to them.

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  • 5. At 00:36am on 08 Jul 2010, Robert Lucien wrote:

    Just read this article on the BBC -

    Isn't this the most depressing thing, 15 years and God knows how much money for ESA to build a new rocket. Exciting design? no. Innovative features? no. New capabilities? no. The ability to lift 8 tons into GEO. The innovation is that it will be slightly smaller and cheaper than the current Ariane 5. At that rate by 2120 we may have a man on the moon, or maybe we will still be inventing a new rocket to put a payload into LEO, slightly smaller and slightly cheaper. Truly the bean counters have inherited the Earth.

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  • 6. At 2:13pm on 08 Jul 2010, knowles2 wrote:

    I wish the Norwegan luck with there little project.

    Not to go off topic, an I am sure Jonathan Amos will write a blog sooner or latter about it but Robert Lucien has a valid point the new plans for the rock do not sound ambuitous or will they introduce any new technology. An why do public money has to go into this anyway, one would of thought with the commercial success of arian 5 these companies would have plenty of money to developed a new rocket by themselves without public money.

    I think ESA needs to have a major look in what new programs in funds an this should not be one of them they should focus on new science a new technologies an not keep on reinventing the wheel an private enterprise should focus on producing new rockets. Just like the Americans are currently doing. Unfortunately how ESA is set up an funded will probably means this never going to happen.
    An why does it take 15 years to developed a new rocket anyway, surely it can be done quicker an cheaper that. In fact Falcon 9 launch shows that it can be done cheaper an faster.

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  • 7. At 7:32pm on 08 Jul 2010, Terry Gush wrote:

    Spaceman, I was just worrying "Hangabout!, this would enable civil shipments of say nuclear material to be tracked by protesters and terrorists alike" when the BBC News lead story just now flashed "Norwegian police say three men have been arrested suspected of plotting terrorist attacks and being members of al-Qaeda"!
    What we really need is a satellite that helps track whoever is using the satellite data.

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  • 8. At 08:16am on 16 Jul 2010, Mehran Wahid wrote:

    ESA didn't need a special rocket for this one - it piggy-backed with other satellites on an Indian rocket. As a ship's Captain and working for a shipping company, I like the idea of continuous tracking of vessels not only for us but also to satisfy the authorities that our ships are legit and thus have less hassle from them. As for the Somali pirates - they don't need a satellite since every one of their boats probably have an AIS receiver for studying vessels around them to pick their next victim!

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