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Home > Physical Education > The body > Training and its effects

Physical Education

Training and its effects

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In this revision bite you'll find out how to improve fitness and performance by training.

Warm up and warm down

The aim of a warm up is to gradually get your whole body prepared for work. An effective warm up will:

  • Prevent injury to muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
  • Prepare the body for specific exercises [Exercise: Physical activity to improve health and fitness..
  • Increase blood flow and temperature of muscles so they will react quicker.
  • Allow a greater range of movement of joints.
Man sitting on grass with leg extended stretching leg muscles before exercising

There are 4 stages of a warm up:

Stage 1Light running/jogging
  • Increses heart rate [Heart rate: The number of heart beats per minute..
  • Increases blood flow to muscles
  • Raises the body temperature.
Stage 2Stretching
  • Allows easier movement.
  • Increases joint flexibility [Flexibility: The range of movement possible at a joint..
  • Stretches the muscles.
Stage 3Practice actions from the activity
  • Warms up specific parts of the body that will be used in the activity
Stage 4Mental preperation
  • Visualise a successful performance.

Example of warm up

A warm-up for basketball may be as follows -

Stage 1 – Jogging. We jogged around the court 5 times (5 minutes)

Stage 2 – Stretching. I focused on leg and groin stretches, because of all the running/jumping/ turning I would perform. I held each stretch for 10-20 seconds and repeated. (5 minutes)

Stage 3Skills [Skill: The learned ability to choose and perform the right techniques at the right time. of the activity. I passed the ball backwards and forwards with a partner for 3 minutes.

Stage 4 – Mental preparation. I focused on the game ahead. Performing successful lay ups and successfully man marking the opposition.

I passed the ball backwards and forwards with a partner for 2 minutes.

 

Video - The warm up

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Warm down

Gentle exercise [Exercise: Physical activity to improve health and fitness. slowly reduces heart rate [Heart rate: The number of heart beats per minute. and body temperature to allow the body to return to normal gradually. It also helps to rid the muscles of lactic acid [Lactic acid: A waste product of anaerobic exercise that causes muscle fatigue (soreness and stiffness).. Progressive stretching gently stretches muscles that may have tightened. It can also help reduce stiffness, soreness, nausea [Nausea: A sick feeling in the stomach. and cramp.

Example of warm down

A warm down for basketball may be as follows -

I jogged 2 or 3 times around the court and then gently stretched my leg muscles.

 

Video - The warm down

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