Reactions of acids
In the exercise in part 3 you had practice writing word equations for neutralisation reactions. Now you will gain some experience of writing formula equations.
Sodium hydroxide + Hydrochloric acid → Sodium chloride + Water
(NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O)
Magnesium oxide + Sulphuric acid → Magnesium sulphate + Water
(MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2O)
Potassium carbonate + Nitric acid → Potassium nitrate + Water + Carbon dioxide
(K2CO3 + 2HNO3 → 2KNO3 + H2O + CO2)
Now try writing formula equations for the reactions below.
It is worthwhile learning the formulae of the three acids most commonly used :
Use valency [valency: the 'combining power' of atoms or ions] to work out the formulae of the neutraliser and the products. The formula for water and the formula for carbon dioxide are easy to remember!
There is no need to balance the equations unless the equation asks you to. This will only happen in a question at Credit level.
Write formula equations for the word equations given below.
potassium hydroxide + nitric acid → potassium nitrate + water
calcium oxide + hydrochloric acid → calcium chloride + water
lithium carbonate + nitric acid → lithium nitrate + water + carbon dioxide
KOH + HNO3 → KNO3 + H2O
CaO + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O
Li2CO3 + 2HNO3 → 2LiNO3 + H2O + CO2
At Credit level in Standard Grade you will be expected to balance formula equations.
Try to balance the formula equations given below.
Hint: Balance the equations by putting balancing numbers in front of formula. Do not change the formula after it has been correctly written.
LiOH + H2SO4 → Li2SO4 + H2O
CuO + HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
CaCO3 + HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
2LiOH + H2SO4 → Li2SO4 + 2H2O
CuO + 2HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
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