Refraction of light
When light passes from one medium (material) to another it changes speed. This is because the speed of a wave is determined by the medium through which it is passing.
When light speeds up as it passes from one material to another, the angle of refraction is bigger than the angle of incidence.
For example, this happens when light passes from water to air or from glass to water.
The diagram above shows light incident on a water-air interface.
At the interface between two materials, the angle of refraction cannot be greater than 90°. Click above to see what happens as the angle of incidence gets bigger.
When the angle of refraction is equal to 90°, the angle of incidence is called the critical angle,
At any angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, the light cannot pass through the surface - it is all reflected.
This is called total internal reflection.
The relationship between critical angle and refractive index is
Calculate the critical angle for red light incident on a water-air interface.
The refractive index of water is 1.33 for this colour of light.
Critical angle of water for this light = 48.8°
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