Viruses and cellular defence
Viruses can be transmitted by travelling within a fluid, such as mucus droplets from a sneeze.
Once they have entered a living host they begin the process of replication [replication: Production of an identical copy.] . This replication process always follows a particular pattern.
|Attachment||Virus binds to a specific receptor on the host cell surface.|
|Penetration||The viral nucleic acid enters the cell.|
|Synthesis of new components.||
Viral nucleic acid takes over control of the cell metabolism stopping the cell's normal nucleic acid and protein synthesis.
Viral nucleic acid is replicated using nucleotides from the host cell.
Protein coats are manufactured using the amino acids of the host cell.
|Assembly||Whole virus particles are made when the nucleic acids are surrounded by the protein coats.|
|Release||Many viral particles are released when the cell bursts open (lysis) or by slow leakage.|
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