(b Montauban, 29 Aug. 1780; d Paris, 14 Jan. 1867). French painter, the son of a minor painter and sculptor, Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (1755–1814). After early training in the Toulouse Academy he moved to Paris in 1797 to study in Jacques-Louis David's studio. He won the Prix de Rome in 1801, but because of the unsettled political situation in France his departure for Italy was postponed until 1806. In the interval he produced his first portraits. These fall into two categories: portraits of himself and his friends, often Romantic in spirit (Self-Portrait, 1804, Mus. Condé, Chantilly); and portraits of well-to-do clients characterized by purity of line and enamel-like colouring (Mlle Rivière, 1805, Louvre, Paris). Their expressive contours have a sensuous beauty of their own beyond their function to contain and delineate form, and this was characteristic of Ingres's painting throughout his life.During his first years in Rome Ingres continued to execute portraits and began to paint bathers, a theme that was to become one of his favourites (Valpinçon Bather, 1808, Louvre). When his four-year scholarship ended, he decided to stay in Rome, where he earned his living mainly with pencil portraits of visitors to the city (several hundred of these survive—marvels of delicate draughtsmanship, although Ingres himself was disparaging about them). His more substantial commissions of this period included two decorative paintings for Napoleon's palace in Rome (Triumph of Romulus over Acron, 1812, École des Beaux-Arts, Paris; and Ossian's Dream, 1813, Mus. Ingres, Montauban). In 1820 he moved from Rome to Florence, where he remained for four years, working mainly on his Raphaelesque Vow of Louis XIII, commissioned for the cathedral of Montauban.