18mh linn / Dùghall Bochanan

Beachdan

Taghadh à lèirmheasan a chaidh a sgrìobhadh mun bhàrdachd aig Dùghall Bochanan, cuide ri beachdan air an clàradh air bhidio agus ann an earrainnean fuaim.

MacFhionghain, D. (1956)

The Prose Writings of Donald Mackinnon

Chan fhiosraich mi bàrd ainmeil Gàidhealach ach Dùghall Bochanan as urrainn mi leughadh a cheann gu ceann agus smuain a' bhàird a thogail agus a leantainn anns gach sreath agus anns gach rann. Chan 'eil mi meas gur ann agam fèin a tha a' choire; oir tha mòran de na bàird Ghàidhealach na's dùthchasaiche dhomh na tha cànain Dhùghaill Bochanan. Agus saoilidh mi gur cliù agus nach coire do Dhùghall Bochanan gu bheil a' chùis mar so. Nam biodh a smuain ìosal, faoin, lag cha bu chliù dha gun rachadh aige air a cur gu soilleir ann an cainnt. Ach ann an coimeas ri ar bàird Ghàidhealach tha smuain Dhùghaill àrd, domhainn. Is cliù mór dha, ma ta, gum faic an leughadair an sealladh a bha fa chomhair an ùghdair cho fad agus is urrainn do inntinn lag, chumhann an sealladh a bha fa chomhair inntinn làidir, fharsaing a chruthachadh.

...

...tha mi meas gun toir Bochanan le aon fhocal no dhà a smuain fa d' chomhair na's soilleire na bheir càch gu tric le fichead. Anns na samhlaidhean a tha e ag cleachdadh a chum a smuain a shoillearachadh, bheir Bochanan, a réir mo bheachd, bàrr air gach bàrd Gàidhealach a tha againn. Tha cuid de na samhlaidhean so a tha a nis 'nan seanfhacail. Tha cuid air nach toirear bàrr ann an cànain sam bith. Tha an tàirneachadh:

  • "Is fonn-chrith orr' gu dol an greim,
  • "Is fonn-chrith orr' gu dol an greim,

Tha na reultan air "uidheal" anns an speur:

  • "Mar mhil air ghéig ri h-ànradh garbh,
  • A' tuiteam mar bhraonaibh dh'uisge dlùth,
  • Is an glòir mar shùilean duine mhairbh."

Gheibhear na ficheadan de'n t-seòrsa cheudna. Chan fhiosraich mi gum faighteadh sreath as iomlaine na i so ann an cànain fo'n ghrèin, an smuain, an cainnt, no an ceòl:

  • "Cha robh e òg is sean cha bhi."

...

A réir mo bheachd-sa bhiodh cliù Dhùghaill Bochanan mar bhàrd na b'àirde na tha i, agus bhiodh a chumhachd a chumhachd a chum math anns a' Ghàidhealtachd na bu mhò na tha e nam biodh a thegasg ann na laoidhean na b'fharsainge, agus nan seinneadh e òrain cho math ri laoidhean. Tha mi meas gun robh tàlann no dhà aige a dh'fhalaich e anns an talamh. Ach chan ann mar so a thuig e féin a "theachdaireachd"; agus faodaidh e bhith gur e féin a thuig gu ceart i. Mar a tha a' chùis tha mi a' smuaineachadh gun do roghnaich mo luchd-dùthcha gu ceart an uair a chuir iad a "Laoidhean" air thoiseach gach leabhar Gàidhlig a tha gainn ach am Bìobull 'na aonar.

Meek, D. E.(1996)

"Images of the Natural World in the Hymnology of Dugald Buchanan and Peter Grant", Scottish Gaelic Studies, 17, dd. 263-277

Because he so fully believes that the creation is a reflection of, and emanation from, God, the Creator, Buchanan is able to compose a hymn which does not refer once to God or Christ, but is nevertheless a 'sermon in verse' exhorting the sinner to repent before it is too late, and death catches up with him. This poem, 'An Geamhradh' ('The Winter'), although based on the concluding part of a poem of the same name by James Thomson, is replete with natural imagery which is original to Buchanan and very obviously Highland. Here the splendidly dramatic cosmic imagery of Watts gives way to what is easily recognisable as a normal eighteenth-century Perthshire winter. The cycle of the seasons is harnessed to show that provident behaviour needs to be well planned and executed before the end of the cycle (DB: 55) -

  • Faic sèasan na bliadhna,
  • 'S dèan ciall uaithe tharraing,
  • 'S mas àill leat gum buain thu,
  • Dèan ruathar san earrach;
  • Dèan connadh san t-samhradh,
  • Ni sa gheamhradh do ghàrradh;
  • 'S ma dhìbhreas tu 'n sèasan,
  • Dhuit 's èiginn bhith falamh.

Thomson, D. S. (An t-Sultain 1958)

"Gaelic Poets of the Eighteenth Century: (3) Dughall Bochanan", An Gàidheal, t.d. 88

Buchanan was an innovator in several ways. External and internal evidence suggest that he was more widely read in English than any of his contemporary Gaelic poets, and this no doubt affected his choice of metres and the idiom of his thought. Attention has been drawn to these matters in Donald McLean's edition of the poems. Buchanan's poetry is less heavily embellished (from the metrical point of view) than that of these other poets, while he makes a freer, more imaginative use of imagery. One distinct gain from his lack of reverence for purely Gaelic models is his avoidance of adjectival elaboration. He can use the adjectival style, as in Fulangas Chrìosd (11 .225-8),

  • Bha 'm bàs ud mallaichte, piantachail, etc.

But, to quote the fine comment of the Rev A. C. Sutherland, made in his paper to the Inverness Gaelic Society in 1874, "He preferred to knit his words together as a living tissue, rather than string them loosely, as a savage his bardic pearls". The story of how he wakened a friend in the middle of the night to debate the relative merits durragan donn and durragan crom (1. 22 of An Claigeann) shows how seriously he took the business of knitting words together. But A. C. Sutherland's commendation may be interpreted more generally too. Just as Buchanan's images are expressed to give the maximum effect, so his stanzas often show the same care. Take for instance this stanza from Am Bruadar (11 .85-8):

  • Tha cuibhrionn iomchuidh aig gach neach,
  • 'S ged a tha thu meas gur tuille b' fhèarr,
  • Cha toir an t-anabharr th' ann an sud
  • Am feasd an cudthrom as a' chràdh.

What makes this stanza so effective? Its truth may come home to one with startling suddenness, and finality, and this is underlined, or punched home, by the internal rhyme in the second couplet (sud: cudthrom) and the long vowel rhyme between 11. 2 and 4. The words are simple, and the idea is expressed with economy, but the word anabharr is sufficiently weighty to highlight the main idea of the stanza. Something of the same economy can be seen in such a poem as Am Bruadar, but An Claigeann, terse though its language is, shows the love of categorisation and exhaustive detail so familiar in much Celtic art, literary as well as decorative.

Teacsa

Dè bhiodh Dùghall ris nam biodh e beò an-diugh?

Nam biodh Dùghall Bochanan beò an-diugh, tha mi smaoineachadh gum biodh e a-mach air The God Delusion, an leabhar a sgrìobh Richard Dawkins, far a bheil e ag ràdh nach eil Dia ann agus gur e daoine amaideach a tha creidsinn ann an cruthachadh, ann an Dia, agus tha mi smaoineachadh 's dòcha gun cleachdadh e an aon seòrsa cruth 's a th' aige anns An Geamhradh far a bheil e a' tòiseachadh sa chiad 8 rannan – chan eil e ag ainmeachadh Dia – ach tha e dìreach a' tarraing dealbh às dèidh dealbh bho nàdar, 's a' sealltainn dè a tha a' tachairt ann an nàdar, agus a' tarraing leasain bhon a sin.

'S tha mi smaoineachadh gun dèanadh e an aon rud le Dawkins, shealladh e 's dòcha air a' mhuir, cumhachd na mara, am muir làn 's muir traigh a' tighean 's a' falbh, cho làidir sa tha na tonnan agus chanadh e, tha fios gu bheil cumachd air cùl sin, tha fios gu bheil Dia air cùl sin. 'S an uair sin, 's dòcha gun coimheadadh e suas dha na speuran agus gun canadh e ri Dawkins, coimhead air na rionnagan. Chan eil thusa air a bhith air taobh thall an fhànais, ciamar a tha fios agadsa nach eil Dia ann agus dh'obraicheach e mar sin, tha mi smaoineachadh, le bhith 'g innse dhuinn na beachdan aige fhèin.

Rud eile, tha mi smaoineachadh, rud a tha gu math connspaideach san eaglais stèidhichte an-dràsta, 's e sin fearas-feise. Tha mi smaoineachadh gum biodh rudeigin aige ri ràdh mu dheidhinn sin. 'S dòcha gun d'rachadh e gu Gàrradh Eden agus gun coimheadadh e air Adhamh agus Eubha, mar a bha 'ad air an cruthachadh, agus an t-aobhar gu robh iad air an cruthachadh – 's e sin dealbh de Chrìosd agus an eaglaise a th' ann, duine agus bean. Chanadh e gu robh an duine agus a bhean eadar-dhealaichte, tha fireann agus boireann ann agus sin mar a bha Dia a' coimhead air chùisean. Cuideachd, rachadh e, tha mi cinnteach, gu sgeulachd Sodom is Gomorrah is shealladh e bhon sin dè bha Dia a' smaoineachadh den a' chuspair. Cuideachd, chanadh e faclan bhon Abstol Pòl.

'S mar sin tha mi smaoineachadh gun dèanadh e ann an dòigh chiallach, reusanta, dòigheil e. Chan eil faireachdainn sam bith agam aig àm sam bith gur e duine cruaidh, borb a bh' ann am Bochanan. Bha e dìreach a' mìneachadh chùisean gu reusanta.

Rud eile mu dheidhinn na bàrdachd aige, chan eil e a' tighinn thugad gur e Easbaigeach no Clèireach no Bàisteach no fo Eaglais na Ròimh, chan eil sin a' nochdadh sa bhàrdachd aige, 's e dìreach Crìosdaidh a tha coimhead air cùisean, coimhead air a' Bhìoball agus a' feuchainn ri mìneachadh cho onarach 's as b' urrainn dha. Tha mi smaoineachadh gur e duine gu math inntinneach, duine a tha a' còrdadh rium na phearsa 's a' charactar aige agus bha e air a bhith math coinneachadh ris.

Air adhart gu

Ceanglaichean

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