Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy

Contributed by British Museum

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This icon commemorates the Triumph of Orthodoxy, a pivotal moment in Byzantine history. It depicts the Empress Theodora, dressed in red, who restored the use of images in religious worship in AD 843. For over a century previously, emperors had forbidden images of Christ, the Virgin Mary and the Saints. Empress Theodora is accompanied by her son and saints associated with the veneration of icons. This icon was made over 500 years after this event, when the shrunken Byzantine Empire was under the threat of invasion by the Ottoman Turks.

What role did icons play in the Byzantine Empire?

The Byzantine Empire was the eastern Greek-speaking half of the Roman Empire. While the last Roman emperor was deposed in AD 476, the Byzantine Empire continued until 1453. What we think of as the Eastern Orthodox Church was created largely within the Byzantine Empire, and the veneration of icons is part of its legacy. The painted icon on a flat wooden panel, that we are familiar with today, has its origins in the Byzantine Empire. Icons are still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church to focus worshippers' prayers on a particular saint or subject.

The most famous Byzantine icon shows the Virgin and Child and is supposedly painted from life by St Luke

A Vision of paradise

The Triumph of Orthodoxy icon is not a simple work of art. It is a symbolic proclamation of the power of images.

In the first centuries of Christianity, converts expected the imminent end of the world and their personal entry into paradise. The production of art was consequently an irrelevance for them. But from the third century onwards this immediate anticipation receded. The investment in permanent churches for communal worship and the dedication of monuments to record the death of charismatic saints or places of Christian witness, like the tomb of Christ at Jerusalem, stimulated the development of art to embellish places of pilgrimage and pious devotion.

Yet some groups in the church strongly disapproved of this conspicuous promotion of art. In response Pope Gregory the Great, around AD 600, defended imagery as useful for teaching the Christian message to the illiterate and for helping the faithful towards the contemplation of God. Despite church support for art along the same lines in Byzantium, all Christian images were aggressively banned there during the long period known as Iconoclasm from AD 730 to 843, leading to the disappearance of figurative art in the eastern Mediterranean at the very moment when Islam, a religion without images, emerged.

The Byzantine iconoclasts ultimately failed in their attempt to limit the scope of Christian art to the representation of the cross. Instead the idea that since God became man on earth, it was proper to show Jesus Christ, his mother Mary and the saints in art as objects of veneration finally prevailed as Orthodox church doctrine. Iconoclasm was declared to be a wicked heresy. This was argued theologically and also as a matter of practice by stating that St Luke as well as writing a Gospel was an artist who had portrayed the Virgin and Child from life and that his actual icons still existed.

The Triumph of Orthodoxy icon shows the continuing strength of feeling at Constantinople in the fourteenth century about the necessity of images in the Orthodox church. At its centre is shown one of the icons of the Virgin and Christ painted by St Luke and preserved in Constantinople. It is shown venerated by the theologians, monks and emperor and empress who defeated the iconoclasts.

From the ninth century, figurative images of Christian saints and stories decorate domes, walls and portable panels, all called icons – representations or symbols – and became the agreed essential support of prayer and worship at home and at church, at times of both joy and sorrow.

Orthodox Christian artists were required to produce icons to function for centuries, the best being both technically superb (painted in egg tempera or made in durable materials like gold, silver or ivory) and in a style avoiding all ephemeral fashions. Icons are made to be carried in processions accompanied by incense and chanting, kissed with emotion, and are the objects of contemplation, prayer and meditation. As things of beauty and symbols of eternal truths, icons transform their space into a vision of paradise.

Robin Cormack, Professor Emeritus in the History of Art, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

Comments are closed for this object


  • 1. At 10:50 on 6 July 2010, Greekboy wrote:

    There's a fine line between venerating the icon as a portal to paradise and venerating it as an object in itself

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  • 2. At 11:51 on 6 July 2010, Prestwick wrote:


    Absolutely true, a fascinating insight into the (sometimes violent) debate over whether icons should even be used within Christianity!

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  • 3. At 12:02 on 11 July 2010, Maxiogee wrote:

    Greekboy wrote:
    > There's a fine line between venerating the icon as a
    > portal to paradise and venerating it as an object in itself

    And this is something which only the individual can determine - how am "I" viewing an image.
    This is not something with which any outside entity - personal, religious or political - ought to be concerned.

    The means by which a person brings the focus of their thoughts to their God are a mater of concern for that person only - how can it upset or affect any other person? We all get to our God in our own manner.

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  • 4. At 21:03 on 15 August 2010, Scott I wrote:

    (There's a minor typographical error in the transcript: "and its called the 'Rules for the icon painter'" should read "and it's....")

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  • 5. At 04:15 on 4 September 2010, mypastismyfuture wrote:

    "The faith we see proclaimed in our painting was strong enough to ensure that, under Muslim rule, the traditions of Orthodox Christianity, with the veneration of icons as its defining feature, endured"
    I start to follow this program enthusiastically how ever the above phrase somehow lacked objectivity and shows some degree of misunderstanding of Islam .

    Islam did protect its precedents Monotheism religious and its conceder them early messages from God /Allah .
    Islam interaction with Judaism and Christianity as launched by the Prophet,
    then his successors from "Khalfites" is based on four basic principles:
    Acceptance of difference and diversity
    No compulsion on religion
    Cooperation in righteousness and piety
    Prohibition of aggression and war morally restricted

    This supported by the presence of many religious minorities in most of Islamic cities throughout history? Of course there were some incidents but it was not enough to finish off this multi faiths presence at all.

    for further reading you may want to go on :

    Going back to the above statement, its does clearly prove its limitation, Islam has allowed Orthodoxy to continue to exist according to Islam principles and of course this it does not reduce the value of orthodox nor their faith. [Unsuitable/Broken URL removed by Moderator]

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  • 6. At 12:51 on 8 December 2010, rocktrongo wrote:

    Whilst I love this series of podcasts, this page is a perfect example of a genuinely awful website.
    Why do I have to zoom so far in to be able to see the annotations? In order to read them I am unable to see any other part of the image. Quite a few annotaions scroll past the edge of the (maximised) browser window.
    In addition, could some thought be given to including a single image of each object with it's podcast?

    Other than that, a fascinating series.

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Made in Istanbul, Turkey




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